How to format your references using the Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wodtke AM. Chemistry. Chemistry in a computer: advancing the in silico dream. Science. 2006;312(5770):64-65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ueshima R, Asami T. Evolution: single-gene speciation by left-right reversal. Nature. 2003;425(6959):679.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson DP, Das S, Watts AB. Earthquake rupture stalled by a subducting fracture zone. Science. 2006;312(5777):1203-1205.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ogawa Y, Kim SK, Dana R, et al. International Chronic Ocular Graft-vs-Host-Disease (GVHD) Consensus Group: proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic GVHD (Part I). Sci Rep. 2013;3:3419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson SK, Handelsman MM. Ethics for Psychotherapists and Counselors. Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Bailey J, Maier D, Schewe KD, Thalheim B, Wang XS, eds. Web Information Systems Engineering - WISE 2008: 9th International Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, September 1-3, 2008. Proceedings. Vol 5175. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Tompa P. Bioinformatics Approaches to the Structure and Function of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins. In: Rigden DJ, ed. From Protein Structure to Function with Bioinformatics. Springer Netherlands; 2009:113-140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Solar Dynamics Observatory Releases Highlights From Year Four. IFLScience. Published February 14, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Vehicle Safety: Opportunities Exist to Enhance NHTSA’s New Car Assessment Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mackay EA. Title I Funding Allocation of Reserve Funds after Increased Standards for Academic Proficiency under the Federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S. ‘I’m Your Childhood.’ New York Times. May 18, 2015:MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology and Precision Engineering
ISSN (print)2589-5540

Other styles