How to format your references using the Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson MI. Chemistry. Just add water. Science. 2010;329(5996):1157-1158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit J, Norman C. 2010 Visualization Challenge. Science. 2011;331(6019):847-856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hastings IM, Bray PG, Ward SA. Parasitology. A requiem for chloroquine. Science. 2002;298(5591):74-75.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Martin KH, Slack JK, Boerner SA, Martin CC, Parsons JT. Integrin connections map: to infinity and beyond. Science. 2002;296(5573):1652-1653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
First MB, Tasman A. Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Anderson B, Gibney MJ, Paoletti E, eds. The Social, Political and Historical Contours of Deportation. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Wei L-Y, Zheng Y, Peng W-C. Mining Popular Routes from Social Media. In: Baughman AK, Gao J, Pan J-Y, Petrushin VA, eds. Multimedia Data Mining and Analytics: Disruptive Innovation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:93-116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Australian’s Campaign Against Wind Farms Continues But The Research Doesn’t Stack Up. IFLScience. Published July 19, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal-Aid Highways: Trends, Effect on State Spending, and Options for Future Program Design. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelayo AM. A case study on the development of team -based leadership structure in the hospital industry. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets’ Pitching Coach Offers Wisdom and Wit. New York Times. May 29, 2017:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology and Precision Engineering
ISSN (print)2589-5540

Other styles