How to format your references using the Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fishell G. Hurricane Sandy: After the deluge. Nature. 2013;496(7446):421-422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sigloch K, Mihalynuk MG. Intra-oceanic subduction shaped the assembly of Cordilleran North America. Nature. 2013;496(7443):50-56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trillo S, Gongora JST, Fratalocchi A. Wave instabilities in the presence of non vanishing background in nonlinear Schrödinger systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7285.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marchewka A, Cooper D, Lenser C, et al. Determination of the electrostatic potential distribution in Pt/Fe:SrTiO₃/Nb:SrTiO₃ thin-film structures by electron holography. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6975.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bech S, Zacharov N. Perceptual Audio Evaluation-Theory, Method and Application. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Wehnert T. European Energy Futures 2030: Technology and Social Visions from the European Energy Delphi Survey. (Araguás JPL, Bernardini O, Jaworski L, et al., eds.). Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Sergej T, Mantiuk R. Perceptual Evaluation of Demosaicing Artefacts. In: Campilho A, Kamel M, eds. Image Analysis and Recognition: 11th International Conference, ICIAR 2014, Vilamoura, Portugal, October 22-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2014:38-45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering.

Blog post
Hale T. Here’s What Earth Would Look Like If Fossil Fuel Energy, Nuclear And Renewable Power Sources Were All Turned Off One By One. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Action Needs to Realize Benefits of Metropolitan Area Acquisition Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi RA. Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Self-Representation by the Mentally Ill Is Curbed. New York Times. June 20, 2008:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology and Precision Engineering
ISSN (print)2589-5540

Other styles