How to format your references using the Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Damasio A. Fundamental feelings. Nature. 2001;413(6858):781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miles L, Kapos V. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: global land-use implications. Science. 2008;320(5882):1454-1455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer DL, Osborne CP, Beerling DJ. Carbon loss by deciduous trees in a CO2-rich ancient polar environment. Nature. 2003;424(6944):60-62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Streets DG, Jiang K, Hu X, et al. Climate change. Recent reductions in China’s greenhouse gas emissions. Science. 2001;294(5548):1835-1837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malcolm D. The British and Irish Short Story Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Bergman K. Photonic Network-on-Chip Design. Vol 68. (Carloni LP, Biberman A, Chan J, Hendry G, eds.). New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Dunner DL. Major Depressive Disorder. In: Fatemi SH, Clayton PJ, eds. The Medical Basis of Psychiatry. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008:73-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Discover Off Switch for Ageing Cells. IFLScience. Published September 24, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Need to Better Ensure Correction of Serious Inspection Violations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller RJ. An Investigation Examining the Perceived Implications of Principal Leadership Changing A Large Comprehensive High School into Smaller Learning Communities. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. For Mets, Sky Was Falling, But Now It’s the Limit. New York Times. April 27, 2010:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology and Precision Engineering
ISSN (print)2589-5540

Other styles