How to format your references using the Nanoscience Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanoscience Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasting JF. Earth history. The rise of atmospheric oxygen. Science. 2001;293:819–820.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke MA, Matzke AJ. Cloning problems don’t surprise plant biologists. Science. 2000;288:2318b.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lacetera N, Macis M, Slonim R. Public health. Economic rewards to motivate blood donations. Science. 2013;340:927–928.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guo CX, Xie J, Wang B, et al. A new class of fluorescent-dots: long luminescent lifetime bio-dots self-assembled from DNA at low temperatures. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2957.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum J, Pearl J. Investment Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Bshouty NH, Gentile C, editors. Learning Theory: 20th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2007, San Diego, CA, USA; June 13-15, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
San Cristóbal JR. A Multi-Attribute Model for Wind Farm Location Combining Cloud and Utility Theories. In: Cavallaro F, editor. Assessment and Simulation Tools for Sustainable Energy Systems: Theory and Applications. London: Springer; 2013. p. 93–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanoscience Methods.

Blog post
Andrew E. Medications Pregnant Women Should Take, Avoid, And Think About. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Faces Challenges in Planning for New Governmentwide Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004. Report No.: GAO-04-486T. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reyes-Rodriguez GJ. Nucleophilic additions to a para-benzyne derived from an enediyne: Exploring the non-radical reactivity of a diradical [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. The “Roswell” Army Fights for Its Show on the Web. New York Times. 2001 Jun 10;232.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoscience Methods
ISSN (online)2164-2311

Other styles