How to format your references using the Nanoscience Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanoscience Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pizzorusso T. Neuroscience. Erasing fear memories. Science. 2009;325:1214–1215.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nussenzweig MC, Mellman I. Ralph Steinman (1943-2011). Nature. 2011;478:460.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown MS, Ye J, Goldstein JL. Medicine. HDL miR-ed down by SREBP introns. Science. 2010;328:1495–1496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu R, Zhou J, Zhao H, et al. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:4687.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li RC-H. RF Circuit Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Schneider-Sliwa R, editor. Cities in Transition: Globalization, Political Change and Urban Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen PH, Nain G, Klein J, et al. Modularity and Dynamic Adaptation of Flexibly Secure Systems: Model-Driven Adaptive Delegation in Access Control Management. In: Chiba S, Tanter É, Bodden E, et al., editors. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development XI. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 109–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanoscience Methods.

Blog post
Andrew E. Neurobiological Origin of Attention Deficit Disorder Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federally Funded Math and Science Materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000. Report No.: GAO-01-81R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cosma AC. Real-Time Individual Thermal Preferences Prediction Using Visual Sensors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A, Taylor K. After an Introduction by de Blasio, a Brooklyn Hospital Hired His Wife. New York Times. 2013 Oct 10;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoscience Methods
ISSN (online)2164-2311

Other styles