How to format your references using the Frontiers in Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dulac C. Brain function and chromatin plasticity. Nature (2010) 465:728–735.
A journal article with 2 authors
Destexhe A, Contreras D. Neuronal computations with stochastic network states. Science (2006) 314:85–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun Z-D, Takagi K, Matsushima F. Separation and conversion dynamics of four nuclear spin isomers of ethylene. Science (2005) 310:1938–1941.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Levine JD, Funes P, Dowse HB, Hall JC. Resetting the circadian clock by social experience in Drosophila melanogaster. Science (2002) 298:2010–2012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover L. Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Oldstone MBA ed. Molecular Mimicry: Infection-Inducing Autoimmune Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2005). VII, 168 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Gruber H, Holzer M. “Finite Automata, Digraph Connectivity, and Regular Expression Size.,” In: Aceto L, Damgård I, Goldberg LA, Halldórsson MM, Ingólfsdóttir A, Walukiewicz I, editors. Automata, Languages and Programming: 35th International Colloquium, ICALP 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland, July 7-11, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2008). p. 39–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Public Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cougars Could Repopulate Midwestern U.S. In Just 25 Years. IFLScience (2015)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2005).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perelygin K. Developing physics simulations with OpenCL on a graphics processing unit. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry E, Kishkovsky S. For Tolstoy and Russia, Still No Happy Ending. New York Times (2011)A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
AbbreviationFront. Public Health
ISSN (online)2296-2565

Other styles