How to format your references using the Nanomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cummer, S.A. Applied physics. Selecting the direction of sound transmission. Science 2014, 343, 495–496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Renshaw, C.E.; Schulson, E.M. Universal behaviour in compressive failure of brittle materials. Nature 2001, 412, 897–900.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wuchty, S.; Jones, B.F.; Uzzi, B. The increasing dominance of teams in production of knowledge. Science 2007, 316, 1036–1039.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiao, J.; Kuang, Q.; Yang, S.; Xiao, F.; Wang, S.; Guo, L. Surface structure dependent electrocatalytic activity of Co₃O₄ anchored on graphene sheets toward oxygen reduction reaction. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hessel, V.; Löwe, H.; Müller, A.; Kolb, G. Chemical Micro Process Engineering; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2005; ISBN 9783527603589.
An edited book
Dryland Ecohydrology; D’Odorico, P., Porporato, A., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; ISBN 9781402042591.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, A.; Zhou, L.; Wang, L. Cooperation Stimulation. In Security-Aware Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks; Zhou, L., Wang, L., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 51–69 ISBN 9783319324579.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanomaterials.

Blog post
Luntz, S. How Our Ancestors First Used Fire To Shape Tools 70,000 Years Ago Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Infrastructure: Urban Transportation Planning Can Better Address Modal Trade-offs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, C.D. Migration: Lighting to evoke human responses. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy, S. Pursuing Inside-Out Strategies. New York Times 2015, D17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanomaterials
AbbreviationNanomaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-4991

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