How to format your references using the Nanomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benovic, J.L. Structural biology: Arresting developments in receptor signalling. Nature 2015, 523, 538–539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Warren, L.A.; Kauffman, M.E. Geoscience. Microbial geoengineers. Science 2003, 299, 1027–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akbarzadeh, A.; Qiu, C.-W.; Danner, A.J. Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2055.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Y.; Tan, Y.-W.; Stormer, H.L.; Kim, P. Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene. Nature 2005, 438, 201–204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radcliff, P.B. Modern Spain; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017; ISBN 9781119406853.
An edited book
Information Security and Privacy: 17th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2012, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, July 9-11, 2012. Proceedings; Susilo, W., Mu, Y., Seberry, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 7372; ISBN 9783642314476.
A chapter in an edited book
Vish, M.; Shanley, T.P. Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In The Respiratory Tract in Pediatric Critical Illness and Injury; Wheeler, D.S., Wong, H.R., Shanley, T.P., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; pp. 1–17 ISBN 9781848009240.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanomaterials.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. It’s Been 20 Years Since We Found The First “True” Planet Outside Our Solar System Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: The Small Business Technology Transfer Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baciu, A.B. Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ADAM LIPTAK; Janet Roberts contributed reporting for this series. Research was contributed by Jack Styczynski; Amster, L.; Anderson, D.; Begg, J.; Delaquérière, A.; Jamison, S.; Lyles, T.; Wilder, C. Serving Life, With No Chance of Redemption. New York Times 2005, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanomaterials
AbbreviationNanomaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-4991

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