How to format your references using the Nanomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharon, M. Biochemistry. Structural MS Pulls Its Weight. Science 2013, 340, 1059–1060.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito, T.; Handa, H. Myeloid Disease: Another Action of a Thalidomide Derivative. Nature 2015, 523, 167–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ibarra, R.U.; Edwards, J.S.; Palsson, B.O. Escherichia Coli K-12 Undergoes Adaptive Evolution to Achieve in Silico Predicted Optimal Growth. Nature 2002, 420, 186–189.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park, D.-H.; Han, C.J.; Shul, Y.-G.; Choy, J.-H. Avatar DNA Nanohybrid System in Chip-on-a-Phone. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4879.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville, A. Political Atlas of the Modern World; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444327540.
An edited book
Frankel, W.L. Frozen Section Library: Pancreas; Proca, D.M., Ed.; Frozen Section Library; 1st ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2011; Vol. 8; ISBN 9781441977892.
A chapter in an edited book
Gomolińska, A. Rough Approximation Based on Weak Q-RIFs. In Transactions on Rough Sets X; Peters, J.F., Skowron, A., Wolski, M., Chakraborty, M.K., Wu, W.-Z., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 117–135 ISBN 9783642032806.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanomaterials.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Nineteen Species of Praying Mantis Discovered (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office A Summary of the Legislative Provisions of the Block Grants Created by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conner, P.A. The STAR Math Test as a Predictor of Arkansas BenchmarkTest Scores. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. Tampa Teams Fund Removal of Monument. New York Times 2017, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanomaterials
AbbreviationNanomaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-4991

Other styles