How to format your references using the Nanomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J.M. Programming: Pick up Python. Nature 2015, 518, 125–126.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikehara, T.; Kataoka, T. Relation between the Helical Twist and S-Shaped Cross Section of the Lamellar Crystals of Polyethylene. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1444.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dong, J.; Yang, G.; McHaourab, H.S. Structural Basis of Energy Transduction in the Transport Cycle of MsbA. Science 2005, 308, 1023–1028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, J.G.; Crooks, R.M.; Seefeldt, L.C.; Bren, K.L.; Bullock, R.M.; Darensbourg, M.Y.; Holland, P.L.; Hoffman, B.; Janik, M.J.; Jones, A.K.; et al. Beyond Fossil Fuel-Driven Nitrogen Transformations. Science 2018, 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cretu, O.; Stewart, R.; Berends, T. Risk Management for Design and Construction; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118984017.
An edited book
Härdle, W.K. Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis; Simar, L., Ed.; 3rd ed. 2012.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642172281.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehner, M.; Tichler, R.; Steinmüller, H.; Koppe, M. Methanation. In Power-to-Gas: Technology and Business Models; Tichler, R., Steinmüller, H., Koppe, M., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Energy; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 41–61 ISBN 9783319039947.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanomaterials.

Blog post
Evans, K. Reindeer: The Secret Weapon To Combat Climate Change? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Bilingual Education: A Necessity That Has Not Been Satisfied; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Birtler, E.R. Group Therapy and Knowledge of Neuroplastic Principles: The Impact of Health Literacy on Client Locus of Control in a Therapy Setting. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz, J.; Fernandez, M.; Blinder, A. Deadly Storm Transforms Houston Streets Into Raging Rivers. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanomaterials
AbbreviationNanomaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-4991

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