How to format your references using the Nanomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benton, M.J. Evolution. How Birds Became Birds. Science 2014, 345, 508–509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenberg, S.M.; Hastings, P.J. Microbiology and Evolution. Modulating Mutation Rates in the Wild. Science 2003, 300, 1382–1383.
A journal article with 3 authors
Herrmann, B.; Thöni, C.; Gächter, S. Antisocial Punishment across Societies. Science 2008, 319, 1362–1367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hernandez-Rapp, J.; Martin-Lannerée, S.; Hirsch, T.Z.; Pradines, E.; Alleaume-Butaux, A.; Schneider, B.; Baudry, A.; Launay, J.-M.; Mouillet-Richard, S. A PrP(C)-Caveolin-Lyn Complex Negatively Controls Neuronal GSK3β and Serotonin 1B Receptor. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attwood, D.; Baybutt, P.; Devlin, C.; Fluharty, W.; Hughes, G.; Isaacson, D.; Joyner, P.; Lee, E.; Lorenzo, D.; Morrison, L.; et al. Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780470118849.
An edited book
P3HT Revisited – From Molecular Scale to Solar Cell Devices; Ludwigs, S., Ed.; Advances in Polymer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 265; ISBN 9783662451441.
A chapter in an edited book
Rutschow, S.; Noutsias, M.; Pauschinger, M. Myocardial Proteases and Matrix Remodeling in Acute Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy. In Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy (DCMi): Pathogenesis and Therapy; Schultheiss, H.-P., Noutsias, M., Eds.; Birkhäuser: Basel, 2010; pp. 71–88 ISBN 9783764383510.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanomaterials.

Blog post
Taub, B. Nearly All Illegal Elephant Ivory Smuggled Out Of Africa Is From Recent Kills (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA: Shuttle Fleet’s Safe Return to Flight Is Key to Space Station Progress; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christiansen, D.A. Investigation of Magnetic Proximity Effect in Ferromagnet/Superconductor Thin Films by Low Temperature Magneto Optical Kerr Effect Measurement. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cheever, S. ‘Why Didn’t Rebecca Stop at the Railroad Crossing?’ New York Times 2014, MM46.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanomaterials
AbbreviationNanomaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-4991

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