How to format your references using the Nanomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rowan-Robinson, M. Astronomy. Probing the Cold Universe. Science 2009, 325, 546–547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valenzuela, S.O.; Tinkham, M. Direct Electronic Measurement of the Spin Hall Effect. Nature 2006, 442, 176–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meeusen, S.; McCaffery, J.M.; Nunnari, J. Mitochondrial Fusion Intermediates Revealed in Vitro. Science 2004, 305, 1747–1752.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kazmierczak, P.; Sakaguchi, H.; Tokita, J.; Wilson-Kubalek, E.M.; Milligan, R.A.; Müller, U.; Kachar, B. Cadherin 23 and Protocadherin 15 Interact to Form Tip-Link Filaments in Sensory Hair Cells. Nature 2007, 449, 87–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wong, K.D. Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118121115.
An edited book
Lingeman, J.M. Network Inference in Molecular Biology: A Hands-on Framework; Shasha, D., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781461431121.
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis, M.A.; Petrovskii, S.V.; Potts, J.R. Invasion in a Multispecies System. In The Mathematics Behind Biological Invasions; Petrovskii, S.V., Potts, J.R., Eds.; Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 107–154 ISBN 9783319320427.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanomaterials.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Philae Sends Back First Images, But Problems Mean Its Mission Could Soon Be Over Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: GSA Faces Challenges in Planning for New Governmentwide Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sousa, K.L. Soul Seeking: A Crossing. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. From India, Bridal Baubles. New York Times 2010, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanomaterials
AbbreviationNanomaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-4991

Other styles