How to format your references using the Nano Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Zala, Careers in behavioral science. Public opinion research: measuring happiness, Science. 316 (2007) 1060–1061.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.-B. Yan, H. Fan, Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4820.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. MacLeod, M. Benfield, P. Culverhouse, Time to automate identification, Nature. 467 (2010) 154–155.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.E. Farrell, R.J. Plevin, B.T. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, D.M. Kammen, Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals, Science. 311 (2006) 506–508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Tsujimura, OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017.
An edited book
P. Hari, K. Heliövaara, L. Kulmala, eds., Physical and Physiological Forest Ecology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Hühnerfuss, Basic physicochemical principles of monomolecular sea slicks and crude oil spills, in: M. Gade, H. Hühnerfuss, G.M. Korenowski (Eds.), Marine Surface Films: Chemical Characteristics, Influence on Air-Sea Interactions and Remote Sensing, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 21–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Today.

Blog post
T. Hale, Ridiculously Handsome Sand Cat Spotted In Wild For First Time In 10 Years, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.G. Rodriguez, Devotion to land: The Virgin Mary and the Mudejar in the post-conquest program of Alfonso X of Castile, 1252–1284, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Bittman, Feast in a Day, New York Times. (2012) MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Today
AbbreviationNano Today
ISSN (print)1748-0132
Biomedical Engineering
General Materials Science
Pharmaceutical Science

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