How to format your references using the Nano Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Elert, Aetiology: Searching for schizophrenia’s roots, Nature. 508 (2014) S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.B. Jacobsen, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA., Geochemistry. How old is planet Earth?, Science. 300 (2003) 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Qvarnström, J.E. Brommer, L. Gustafsson, Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild, Nature. 441 (2006) 84–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I.R. Piletic, M.D. Fayer, Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time, Science. 309 (2005) 1338–1343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Sabol, Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
J. Zhan, ed., Impacts of Land-use Change on Ecosystem Services, 1st ed. 2015, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ø. Halaas, H. Husebye, T. Espevik1, The Journey of Toll-like Receptors in the Cell, in: J.D. Lambris (Ed.), Current Topics in Innate Immunity, Springer, New York, NY, 2007: pp. 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Today.

Blog post
J. Davis, Brown Bears Are Seriously Active Hunters And Feast On Caribou Calves, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Government: Additional OMB Leadership Needed to Optimize Use of New Federal Employee Identification Cards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Ritter, The EU and conflict: Critically assessing the success of the ESDP and its impact in conflict areas, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr., A.L. Baker, A. Southall, Grandmother’s Killing Lays Bare Dilemma in Child Welfare Work, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Today
AbbreviationNano Today
ISSN (print)1748-0132
Biomedical Engineering
General Materials Science
Pharmaceutical Science

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