How to format your references using the Nano Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Garber, Science careers. Translational institute unites unlikely partners at Penn, Science. 317 (2007) 968–969.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Elser, E. Bennett, Phosphorus cycle: A broken biogeochemical cycle, Nature. 478 (2011) 29–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.B. Hannon, J. Tersoff, R.M. Tromp, Surface stress and thermodynamic nanoscale size selection, Science. 295 (2002) 299–301.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.D. Maladen, Y. Ding, C. Li, D.I. Goldman, Undulatory swimming in sand: subsurface locomotion of the sandfish lizard, Science. 325 (2009) 314–318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Prud’Homme, Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
J. Duparc, T.A. Henzinger, eds., Computer Science Logic: 21st International Workshop, CSL 2007, 16th Annual Conference of the EACSL, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 11-15, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Vestergaard, M.S. Deleuran, Inflammatory-Driven Depletion of Filaggrin Proteins, in: J.P. Thyssen, H.I. Maibach (Eds.), Filaggrin: Basic Science, Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and Management, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Today.

Blog post
J. Davis, Pre-Columbian Mexicans Were Probably Farming Rabbits And Hares, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, D.C. Nonappropriated Revenue, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.W. Adelman, Early childhood nutritional responses to targeted food aid and social network disruptions in Ugandan internally displaced person’s camps, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Dynarski, Finding Shock Absorbers for Student Debt, New York Times. (2014) BU8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Today
AbbreviationNano Today
ISSN (print)1748-0132
Biomedical Engineering
General Materials Science
Pharmaceutical Science

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