How to format your references using the Scottish Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scottish Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. 2011. Animal models: inside the minds of mice and men. Nature, 475, 123–128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melosh, H.J. & Collins, G.S. 2005. Planetary science: Meteor Crater formed by low-velocity impact. Nature, 434, 157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paggi, M., Pohrt, R. & Popov, V.L. 2014. Partial-slip frictional response of rough surfaces. Scientific reports, 4, 5178.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Abraham, E.R., Law, C.S., Boyd, P.W., Lavender, S.J., Maldonado, M.T. & Bowie, A.R. 2000. Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom. Nature, 407, 727–730.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay, R. 2014. Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation. Oxford, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Thomson, M.C., Garcia-Herrera, R. & Beniston, M. (eds). 2008. Seasonal Forecasts, Climatic Change and Human Health: Health and Climate. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, Advances in Global Change Research.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner, M., Misaghi, S. & Ploegh, H.L. 2005. Immunoevasive Strategies: Host and Virus. In: Palese, P. (ed.) Modulation of Host Gene Expression and Innate Immunity by Viruses. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 65–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scottish Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. Termites Have Been Building Bioreactors for 30 Million Years. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Information Technology: Near-Term Effort to Automate Paper-Based Immigration Files Needs Planning Improvements. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, GAO-06-375.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shenasi, S.Y. 2015. The Roots of Music Therapy: Healing the Wounds of the Psyche. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S. 2017. Trump Denies Weighing Whether to Fire Mueller. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Melosh & Collins 2005; Baker 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melosh & Collins 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Abraham et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleScottish Journal of Geology
AbbreviationScott. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)0036-9276
ISSN (online)2041-4951

Other styles