How to format your references using the Scottish Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scottish Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hedin, L.O. 2012. Retrospective. F. Herbert Bormann (1922-2012). Science (New York, N.Y.), 337, 534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armakolas, A. and Klar, A.J.S. 2007. Left-right dynein motor implicated in selective chromatid segregation in mouse cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315, 100–101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duplessy, J.C., Roche, D.M. and Kageyama, M. 2007. The deep ocean during the last interglacial period. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 89–91.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yu, C.Y., Liu, X.J., Lu, J., Zheng, G.P. and Liu, C.T. 2013. First-principles prediction and experimental verification of glass-forming ability in Zr-Cu binary metallic glasses. Scientific reports, 3, 2124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Counseling Association. 2015. The ACA Encyclopedia of Counseling.
An edited book
Bissen-Miyajima, H., Koch, D.D. and Weikert, M.P. (eds). 2014. Cataract Surgery: Maximizing Outcomes Through Research.
A chapter in an edited book
Cassidy, W., Jackson, M. and Faucher, C. 2016. Gender Differences and Cyberbullying Towards Faculty Members in Higher Education. In: Navarro, R., Yubero, S. and Larrañaga, E. (eds) Cyberbullying Across the Globe: Gender, Family, and Mental Health. 79–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scottish Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Slow Motion Video Reveals How Raindrops Fall on Sand Like Asteroids. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Can the Federal Communications Commission Successfully Implement Its Computer II Decision? CED-82-38.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oldham, C.A. 2010. An Investigation of Genre and Grammatical Positioning in an Online Community. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2002. World Business Briefing | Europe: Russia: Genetics Rule Considered. New York Times, W1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hedin 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Armakolas and Klar 2007; Hedin 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armakolas and Klar 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleScottish Journal of Geology
AbbreviationScott. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)0036-9276
ISSN (online)2041-4951

Other styles