How to format your references using the Scottish Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scottish Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, S.L. 2001. Newton in Japan. Nature, 411, 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Awasthi, A. & Kuchroo, V.K. 2009. Immunology. The yin and yang of follicular helper T cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325, 953–955.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basch, M.L., Bronner-Fraser, M. & García-Castro, M.I. 2006. Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7. Nature, 441, 218–222.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawahara, A., Nishi, T., Hisano, Y., Fukui, H., Yamaguchi, A. & Mochizuki, N. 2009. The sphingolipid transporter spns2 functions in migration of zebrafish myocardial precursors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323, 524–527.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bass, F. 2013. Guide to the Census. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dewey, S. 2013. Ethical Research with Sex Workers: Anthropological Approaches. Zheng, T. (ed.). New York, NY, Springer, SpringerBriefs in Anthropology.
A chapter in an edited book
Heaslip, G., Haavisto, I. & Kovács, G. 2016. Cash as a Form of Relief. In: Zobel, C. W., Altay, N. & Haselkorn, M. P. (eds) Advances in Managing Humanitarian Operations. Cham, Springer International Publishing, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scottish Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Ant Body Odors Are Chemical Barcodes Used To Confirm The Identity Of Colony Members. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Analysis of the Loan Interest Subsidy and Grant Methods of Financing Construction. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lynch, L.E. 2013. Financial Regulation and Economic Performance: A Descriptive Correlation Study of American Financial Institutions. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2010. Just Answer the Question. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Montgomery 2001; Awasthi & Kuchroo 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Awasthi & Kuchroo 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawahara et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleScottish Journal of Geology
AbbreviationScott. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)0036-9276
ISSN (online)2041-4951

Other styles