How to format your references using the Scottish Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scottish Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, B. 2013. Obesity: heavy sleepers. Nature, 497, S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moiseff, A. and Copeland, J. 2010. Firefly synchrony: a behavioral strategy to minimize visual clutter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329, 181.
A journal article with 3 authors
Righton, D., Metcalfe, J. and Connolly, P. 2001. Fisheries. Different behaviour of North and Irish Sea cod. Nature, 411, 156.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, P.-R., He, Y., Cao, C. and Lu, Z.-H. 2014. Impact of lattice distortion and electron doping on α-MoO3 electronic structure. Scientific reports, 4, 7131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene, J. 2008. Clients with Complex Needs: Interprofessional Practice.
An edited book
Bhushan, B. (ed.). 2012. Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakrabarti, S. and Sinha, M. 2012. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease: Mechanisms, Consequences and Interventions. In: Thakur, M. K. and Rattan, S. I. S. (eds) Brain Aging and Therapeutic Interventions. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scottish Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Five Chemistry Inventions That Enabled The Modern World. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Digital Service Programs: Assessing Results and Coordinating with Chief Information Officers Can Improve Delivery of Federal Projects. GAO-16-602.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roubin, A.M. 2014. A Resource Manual of Bullying Intervention Programs for Parents, Educators, and Community Officials in the Los Angeles Area. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. 2006. An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move. New York Times, LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Moiseff and Copeland 2010; Owens 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moiseff and Copeland 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScottish Journal of Geology
AbbreviationScott. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)0036-9276
ISSN (online)2041-4951

Other styles