How to format your references using the Scottish Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scottish Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chambers, R.G. 2004. Obituary: David Shoenberg (1911-2004). Nature, 428, 613.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boles, M.A. and Talapin, D.V. 2014. Chemistry. Connecting the dots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344, 1340–1341.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, H., Li, W.X. and Ding, S.W. 2002. Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296, 1319–1321.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sundareshwar, P.V., Morris, J.T., Koepfler, E.K. and Fornwalt, B. 2003. Phosphorus limitation of coastal ecosystem processes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299, 563–565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A. 2012. Fracture Mechanics 1.
An edited book
Congregado, E. (ed.). 2008. Measuring Entrepreneurship: Building a Statistical System. International Studies In Entrepreneurship.
A chapter in an edited book
Derynck, R., Choy, L. and Alliston, T. 2006. Smads In Mesenchymal Differentiation. In: Dijke, P. T. and Heldin, C.-H. (eds) Smad Signal Transduction: Smads in Proliferation, Differentiation and Disease. Proteins and Cell Regulation, 93–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scottish Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. Plants Use Quantum Mechanics To Make Photosynthesis More Efficient. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. SSA ADP Budget: Suggested Reductions to Fiscal Year 1991 Budget. IMTEC-90-82.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosenfeld, E.G. 2009. The Ascent of Women to Senior Leadership Positions in the Financial Services Industry: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. 2007. Coziness, With Good Lines. New York Times, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chambers 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers 2004; Boles and Talapin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boles and Talapin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sundareshwar et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleScottish Journal of Geology
AbbreviationScott. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)0036-9276
ISSN (online)2041-4951

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