How to format your references using the Scottish Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scottish Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2005. Management potential. Nature, 435, 123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barbi, E. and Vaupel, J.W. 2005. Comment on ‘Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308, 1743; author reply 1743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E. and Wieman, C. 2011. Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332, 862–864.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Keegan, B.R., Feldman, J.L., Begemann, G., Ingham, P.W. and Yelon, D. 2005. Retinoic acid signaling restricts the cardiac progenitor pool. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 247–249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bi, J. 2015. Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements.
An edited book
Gheyi, R. and Naumann, D. (eds). 2012. Formal Methods: Foundations and Applications: 15th Brazilian Symposium, SBMF 2012, Natal, Brazil, September 23-28, 2012. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Zerbe, I. and Gajovic-Eichelmann, N. 2010. Lipidic Microbubble Targeting of Surface Proteins Using an in Vitro System. In: Paradossi, G., Pellegretti, P. and Trucco, A. (eds) Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Targeting and Processing Methods for Theranostics. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scottish Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Three New Species Of Tiny Salamander Found (And They’re Already Endangered). IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues. GAO-01-958R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soheili, A. 2008. A Transannular Cope Approach toward the Core Structure of Isocyclocitrinol. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. 2003. First Prize Is a Chance to Climb Everest. New York Times, D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Barbi and Vaupel 2005; Smaglik 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barbi and Vaupel 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Keegan et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleScottish Journal of Geology
AbbreviationScott. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)0036-9276
ISSN (online)2041-4951

Other styles