How to format your references using the Earth Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller, K. L., 2013: Antibodies. The future is now. Introduction. Science, 341, 1191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watkins, N. W., and M. P. Freeman, 2008: Geoscience. Natural complexity. Science, 320, 323–324.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burke, M. D., E. M. Berger, and S. L. Schreiber, 2003: Generating diverse skeletons of small molecules combinatorially. Science, 302, 613–618.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Habicht, K. S., M. Gade, B. Thamdrup, P. Berg, and D. E. Canfield, 2002: Calibration of sulfate levels in the archean ocean. Science, 298, 2372–2374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, T., 2008: Building the Reflective Healthcare Organisation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd,.
An edited book
Pahl-Wostl, C., P. Kabat, and J. Möltgen, eds., 2008: Adaptive and Integrated Water Management: Coping with Complexity and Uncertainty. Springer, XIII, 440 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
McNeeley, M. F., M. Itani, and C. A. Rohrmann, 2015: Diagnostic Fluoroscopy for Imaging Crohn’s Disease. Crohn’s Disease: Basic Principles, A. Fichera and M.K. Krane, Eds., Springer International Publishing, 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Interactions.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016: Chimpanzee Cooperation Looks A Lot Like Ours. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979: Developing a Domestic Common Carrier Telecommunications Policy: What Are the Issues? U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, D., 2017: Health Information Infrastructure: Flows and Frictions. Indiana University, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010: Pettitte’s Words And Character Carry Weight. New York Times, August 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mueller 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mueller 2013; Watkins and Freeman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watkins and Freeman 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Habicht et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Interactions
AbbreviationEarth Interact.
ISSN (online)1087-3562
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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