How to format your references using the Earth Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan, K., 2009: Personnel dilemma. Nature, 458, 372–373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birks, H. J. B., and H. H. Birks, 2004: Paleoecology. The rise and fall of forests. Science, 305, 484–485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., R. Habas, and C. Abate-Shen, 2004: MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis. Science, 304, 1675–1678.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Jiang, W., J. Tang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and Y. Duan, 2014: Characterization of argon direct-current glow discharge with a longitudinal electric field applied at ambient air. Sci. Rep., 4, 6323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xing, B., C. D. Vecitis, and N. Senesi, 2016: Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment: Biophysicochemical Processes and Toxicity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Clerbout, N., 2015: Linking Game-Theoretical Approaches with Constructive Type Theory: Dialogical Strategies, CTT demonstrations and the Axiom of Choice. S. Rahman, Ed. Springer International Publishing, XIX, 99 p. 26 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Donadio, V., 2016: Visualization of the Cutaneous Axonal Endings of CLTMs. Affective Touch and the Neurophysiology of CT Afferents, H. Olausson, J. Wessberg, I. Morrison, and F. McGlone, Eds., Springer, 61–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Interactions.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014: ‘Ambulance Drone’ Could Drastically Increase Heart Attack Survival. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976: Why NASA’s Property Accounting and Control System Should Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Than, K., 2015: The impact of companion pets on the well-being of older adults. California State University, Long Beach, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002: Meters Are Running, And Hawking, Too. New York Times, April 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaplan 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kaplan 2009; Birks and Birks 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birks and Birks 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Interactions
AbbreviationEarth Interact.
ISSN (online)1087-3562
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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