How to format your references using the Earth Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2001: Bid to end EU’s transgenic impasse. Nature, 413, 661.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo, M.-T., and W.-C. Lee, 2014: Detecting a weak association by testing its multiple perturbations: a data mining approach. Sci. Rep., 4, 5081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schumacher, M. A., B. K. Hurlburt, and R. G. Brennan, 2001: Crystal structures of SarA, a pleiotropic regulator of virulence genes in S. aureus. Nature, 409, 215–219.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Mai, S., and Coauthors, 2014: Inherent insulin sensitivity is a major determinant of multimeric adiponectin responsiveness to short-term weight loss in extreme obesity. Sci. Rep., 4, 5803.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnet, P., 2013: Enterprise Data Governance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Bloch, A. M., 2015: Nonholonomic Mechanics and Control. P.S. Krishnaprasad and R.M. Murray, Eds. Springer, XXI, 565 p. 59 illus., 18 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Oestreicher, L., 2009: Teaching Human-Computer Interaction from Real World Examples — Furnishing Creativity? Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education, P. Kotzé, W. Wong, J. Jorge, A. Dix, and P.A. Silva, Eds., IFIP – The International Federation for Information Processing, Springer US, 60–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Interactions.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016: How To Calm Waves On A Lake With A Spoonful Of Olive OIl. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008: Health Information Technology: HHS Is Pursuing Efforts to Advance Nationwide Implementation, but Has Not Yet Completed a National Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah, S. K., 2017: Data Transmission Using Image Steganography in Quick Response (QR) Code. California State University, Long Beach, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel, E., 2017: On the Cusp Of a Capstone. New York Times, July 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2001; Lo and Lee 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lo and Lee 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mai et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Interactions
AbbreviationEarth Interact.
ISSN (online)1087-3562
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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