How to format your references using the Earth Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, A., 2008: A century of puzzling. Nature, 453, 990–991.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aharonov, Y., and M. S. Zubairy, 2005: Time and the quantum: erasing the past and impacting the future. Science, 307, 875–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bizzarro, M., J. A. Baker, and H. Haack, 2004: Mg isotope evidence for contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions. Nature, 431, 275–278.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Kerner, M., H. Hohenberg, S. Ertl, M. Reckermann, and A. Spitzy, 2003: Self-organization of dissolved organic matter to micelle-like microparticles in river water. Nature, 422, 150–154.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Chevalier, F., D. Lesselier, and R. Staraj, 2011: Non-standard Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc,.
An edited book
Truong, T.-D., and D. Gasper, eds., 2011: Transnational Migration and Human Security: The Migration-Development-Security Nexus. Springer, X, 370 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Zorro, Y., 2016: Ciudad Bolivar, Bogota: Scorned Territories. Learning from the Slums for the Development of Emerging Cities, J.-C. Bolay, J. Chenal, and Y. Pedrazzini, Eds., GeoJournal Library, Springer International Publishing, 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Interactions.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015: Early East Asians Mixed With Neanderthals More Than Once. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976: Summary of Improvement Actions Taken by the Government Printing Office in the Utilization and Management of Automatic Data Processing Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornejo, V. M., 2010: Teachers’ perceptions about promoting mental health in the classroom. California State University, Long Beach, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017: Film Series. New York Times, January 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Robinson 2008; Aharonov and Zubairy 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aharonov and Zubairy 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kerner et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Interactions
AbbreviationEarth Interact.
ISSN (online)1087-3562
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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