How to format your references using the Earth Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner, K., 2008: Toronto rising. Nature, 453, 252–253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Labouriau, R., and A. Amorim, 2008: Comment on “An association between the kinship and fertility of human couples.” Science, 322, 1634; author reply 1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lehmann, S., A. D. Jackson, and B. E. Lautrup, 2006: Measures for measures. Nature, 444, 1003–1004.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Lui, C. H., L. Liu, K. F. Mak, G. W. Flynn, and T. F. Heinz, 2009: Ultraflat graphene. Nature, 462, 339–341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiselton, A. C., 2010: 1 & 2 Thessalonians: Through the Centuries. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK,.
An edited book
Sivaperuman, C., Q. H. Baqri, G. Ramaswamy, and M. Naseema, eds., 2009: Faunal Ecology and Conservation of the Great Indian Desert. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVIII, 222 p. 41 illus., 1 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, S., H. Chen, C. Böhm, and F. Allgöwer, 2009: Enlarging the Terminal Region of NMPC with Parameter-Dependent Terminal Control Law. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Towards New Challenging Applications, L. Magni, D.M. Raimondo, and F. Allgöwer, Eds., Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 69–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Interactions.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016: Crystals Found In Siberian Crater Are Unlike Anything Else Found On Earth. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978: The Management and Operation of the Runaway Youth Program Administered by the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chotkevys, D. L., 2009: A grounded theory study to explore how nurses overcome barriers to spiritual care. University of Phoenix, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J., 2017: Megamerger In Aerospace Draws Doubts. New York Times, September 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleiner 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kleiner 2008; Labouriau and Amorim 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Labouriau and Amorim 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lui et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Interactions
AbbreviationEarth Interact.
ISSN (online)1087-3562
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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