How to format your references using the Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi, P. (2013). Physiology. When metabolism and epigenetics converge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6116), 148–150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sandoval, D. A., & Seeley, R. J. (2010). Medicine. The microbes made me eat it. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5975), 179–180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanna, J. B., Schmitt, D., & Griffin, T. M. (2008). The energetic cost of climbing in primates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5878), 898.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mumma, M. J., Dello Russo, N., DiSanti, M. A., Magee-Sauer, K., Novak, R. E., Brittain, S., … Xu, L. H. (2001). Organic composition of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR): a comet formed near Jupiter? Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5520), 1334–1339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. (2013). IP, Ethernet and MPLS Networks. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Flaschel, P. (2008). Topics in Applied Macrodynamic Theory. (G. Groh, C. Proaño, & W. Semmler, Eds.) (Vol. 10). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sparano, A., & Barbato, G. (2010). Aorta toracica e tronchi sovraortici. In L. Romano, S. Fulciniti, & M. Silva (Eds.), Anatomia TC multidetettore — Body (pp. 23–27). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotion.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 11). What Does Australia’s New 2030 Climate Target Mean For The Local Coal Industry? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Inspectors General: Information on Resources and Selected Accomplishments of 18 Inspectors General (No. AIMD-00-149R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang, Y. (2003). Statistical Analysis of cDNA Microarrays: A Systematic Approach to Identify MTF-1 Mediated Gene Expression Profile in Response to Cadmium (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc, J. (2017, March 4). Straight From a Boomer’s Attic. New York Times, p. F8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sassone-Corsi, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sandoval & Seeley, 2010; Sassone-Corsi, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sandoval & Seeley, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Hanna, Schmitt, & Griffin, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mumma et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotion
ISSN (print)1528-3542
ISSN (online)1931-1516
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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