How to format your references using the Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yin, Q. (2013). Insolation-induced mid-Brunhes transition in Southern Ocean ventilation and deep-ocean temperature. Nature, 494(7436), 222–225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker, R. M., & Bordenstein, S. R. (2013). The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6146), 667–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal, A. F., Brodie, E. D., 3rd, & Brown, J. (2001). Parent-offspring coadaptation and the dual genetic control of maternal care. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5522), 1710–1712.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kumagai, H., Ohminato, T., Nakano, M., Ooi, M., Kubo, A., Inoue, H., & Oikawa, J. (2001). Very-long-period seismic signals and caldera formation at Miyake Island, Japan. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5530), 687–690.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wright, D. (2016). Using Commercial Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Saari, V. (2012). Continuous-Time Low-Pass Filters for Integrated Wideband Radio Receivers (J. Ryynänen & S. Lindfors, Eds.). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlova, M., & Lomakina, T. (2016). Sustainable Development as a World-view: Implications for Education. In C.-M. Lam & J. Park (Eds.), Sociological and Philosophical Perspectives on Education in the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 37–50). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotion.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, June 5). Magnetic Fields Can Be As Strong As Black Holes’ Gravity. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Aviation Security: Development of New Security Technology Has Not Met Expectations (RCED-94-142). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seymour, C. R. (2017). Natives Versus Exotics and Grasses Versus Forbs: A Long-Term Study of Vegetation in La Jolla Valley [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, September 10). Rally, and a Favorable Schedule, Lift the Mets’ Hopes. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yin, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Brucker & Bordenstein, 2013; Yin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brucker & Bordenstein, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Agrawal et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kumagai et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotion
ISSN (print)1528-3542
ISSN (online)1931-1516
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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