How to format your references using the Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2001). Network boost for southeast Europe. Nature, 410(6829), 619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant, M. R., & Jones, J. D. G. (2009). Hormone (dis)harmony moulds plant health and disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928), 750–752.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender, P. A., Kee, J.-M., & Warrington, J. M. (2008). Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5876), 649–652.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pruneda-Paz, J. L., Breton, G., Para, A., & Kay, S. A. (2009). A functional genomics approach reveals CHE as a component of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5920), 1481–1485.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Masujima, M. (2005). Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Jahankhani, H., Revett, K., & Palmer-Brown, D. (Eds.). (2008). Global E-Security: 4th International Conference, ICGeS 2008, London, UK, June 23-25, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 12). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gauravaram, P., & Knudsen, L. R. (2009). On Randomizing Hash Functions to Strengthen the Security of Digital Signatures. In A. Joux (Ed.), Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2009: 28th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Cologne, Germany, April 26-30, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 88–105). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotion.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, August 27). The Mystery Of Knut The Polar Bear’s Death May Have Been Solved. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Expenditures for Public Affairs Activities (B-161939). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, M. D. (2009). Organizational improvisation within an episodic planning model: A systems perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, October 6). It’s Still Audrey’s College, Even If Her Name Is Gone. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Grant & Jones, 2009; Schiermeier, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grant & Jones, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Wender et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pruneda-Paz et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotion
ISSN (print)1528-3542
ISSN (online)1931-1516
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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