How to format your references using the Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crous, C. J. (2014). Judge research impact on a local scale. Nature, 513(7516), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, Y., & Conrad, R. (2005). In situ stable isotope probing of methanogenic archaea in the rice rhizosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1088–1090.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Belmonte, M. K. (2005). Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5749), 819–823.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Palmenberg, A. C., Spiro, D., Kuzmickas, R., Wang, S., Djikeng, A., Rathe, J. A., Fraser-Liggett, C. M., & Liggett, S. B. (2009). Sequencing and analyses of all known human rhinovirus genomes reveal structure and evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5923), 55–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Helsel, D. R. (2011). Statistics for Censored Environmental Data Using Minitab® and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Carriço, L., Baloian, N., & Fonseca, B. (Eds.). (2009). Groupware: Design, Implementation, and Use: 15th International Workshop, CRIWG 2009, Peso da Régua, Douro, Portugal, September 13-17, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5784). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rovenskaya, E. (2010). Optimal Economic Growth Under Stochastic Environmental Impact: Sensitivity Analysis. In J. Crespo Cuaresma, T. Palokangas, & A. Tarasyev (Eds.), Dynamic Systems, Economic Growth, and the Environment (pp. 79–107). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotion.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 17). Scientists Finally Unlock The Secrets Behind Superconductivity. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Evaluation and the Research Process (110668). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beasley, C. A. (2010). Investigations of redox-labeled silica and gold nanoparticles in solution and as films on electrodes [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2012, March 29). Silent Partners No Longer. New York Times, E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crous, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Crous, 2014; Lu & Conrad, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu & Conrad, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Baron-Cohen et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Palmenberg et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotion
ISSN (print)1528-3542
ISSN (online)1931-1516
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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