How to format your references using the Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clyne, R. Industry and Interns. The Intern Experience. Nature 2004, 431 (7008), 612.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, Y.; Zhang, Z. Controlling the Efficiency of Trapping in a Scale-Free Small-World Network. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6274.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsumoto, M.; Saito, S.; Ohmine, I. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Ice Nucleation and Growth Process Leading to Water Freezing. Nature 2002, 416 (6879), 409–413.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tadaki, K.; Iono, D.; Yun, M. S.; Aretxaga, I.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Izumi, T.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Lee, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Saito, T.; Tamura, Y.; Ueda, J.; Umehata, H.; Wilson, G. W.; Michiyama, T.; Ando, M.; Kamieneski, P. The Gravitationally Unstable Gas Disk of a Starburst Galaxy 12 Billion Years Ago. Nature 2018, 560 (7720), 613–616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, J. A.; Timacheff, S. Digital Photography for Dummies®; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Zooarchaeology and Modern Human Origins: Human Hunting Behavior during the Later Pleistocene; Clark, J. L., Speth, J. D., Eds.; Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gołab, S. Sur L’ÉQuation Fonctionnelle Des Brigades. In Functional Equations and Inequalities; Forte, B., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp 141–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Letters.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Single Cure Found For Three Neglected Diseases. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Examination of Grants Awarded to the Berkeley Unified School District and to Bilingual Children’s Television, Inc; B-164031(1); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prima, M. B. Waiting for Lefty: Adversity and the American Dream. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. New Jersey and Delaware Take Long-Brewing Boundary Fight to Supreme Court. New York Times. October 16, 2007, p B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Letters
AbbreviationNano Lett.
ISSN (print)1530-6984
ISSN (online)1530-6992
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles