How to format your references using the Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovelock, J. Gaia: The Living Earth. Nature 2003, 426 (6968), 769–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kondo, S.; Miura, T. Reaction-Diffusion Model as a Framework for Understanding Biological Pattern Formation. Science 2010, 329 (5999), 1616–1620.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonsall, M. B.; Jansen, V. A. A.; Hassell, M. P. Life History Trade-Offs Assemble Ecological Guilds. Science 2004, 306 (5693), 111–114.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, F.; Cheng, H.; Hu, Y.; Song, L.; Zhang, Z.; Jiang, L.; Qu, L. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-Free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5882.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondoz, A. M. Digital Speech; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology; Amara, S. G., Bamberg, E., Grinstein, S., Hebert, S. C., Jahn, R., Lederer, W. J., Lill, R., Miyajima, A., Murer, H., Offermanns, S., Schultz, G., Schweiger, M., Eds.; Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 156.
A chapter in an edited book
Kwiecien, G. J. Fallopian Tube Anastomosis. In Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Experimental Models and Research Designs; Siemionow, M. Z., Ed.; Springer: London, 2015; pp 39–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Would Be Almost Impossible Without Climate Change. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inspectors General: Information on Resources and Selected Accomplishments of 18 Inspectors General; AIMD-00-149R; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, R. J. Exploring the Effects of Parasocial Connection on Relaxation Exercise Persistence in Women. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. A Rested Williams Shakes Off the Rust. New York Times. January 3, 2017, p B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Letters
AbbreviationNano Lett.
ISSN (print)1530-6984
ISSN (online)1530-6992
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles