How to format your references using the Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, H. Hepatitis C. Nature 2011, 474 (7350), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill, M. J.; O’Neill, R. J. Genomics: Something to Swing About. Nature 2014, 513 (7517), 174–175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watson, E. B.; Thomas, J. B.; Cherniak, D. J. 40Ar Retention in the Terrestrial Planets. Nature 2007, 449 (7160), 299–304.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ren, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, R. Z.; Fenstermacher, D. A.; Wright, K. L.; Teer, J. K.; Wu, J. JAK1 Truncating Mutations in Gynecologic Cancer Define New Role of Cancer-Associated Protein Tyrosine Kinase Aberrations. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allan, D.; Bragg, N. 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Multibody Dynamics: Computational Methods and Applications; Font-Llagunes, J. M., Ed.; Computational Methods in Applied Sciences; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 42.
A chapter in an edited book
Latting, J. W.; Spritzer, C. E. Sports Medicine of the Foot & Ankle, the Role of Imaging. In Foot and Ankle Sports Orthopaedics; Valderrabano, V., Easley, M., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Biological Vs Chronological Age: How Old Are You Really? (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Competition: Restricting Airline Ticketing Rules Unlikely to Help Consumers; GAO-01-831; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chow, B. J. Forming Infrastructural Materials by Mechanical Compaction of Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulants. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Books of Wonder Coming to West Side. New York Times. June 8, 2017, p C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Letters
AbbreviationNano Lett.
ISSN (print)1530-6984
ISSN (online)1530-6992
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles