How to format your references using the Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Faist, J. APPLIED PHYSICS: Smaller, Faster Midinfrared Lasers. Science 2000, 290 (5497), 1713–1714.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey, S. B.; Richardson, S. H. Start of the Wilson Cycle at 3 Ga Shown by Diamonds from Subcontinental Mantle. Science 2011, 333 (6041), 434–436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng, G.-M.; Wu, L.-A.; Xing, H.-J. Symmetry Restoration and Quantumness Reestablishment. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6377.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, G.; Sun, S.; Cai, M.; Zhang, Y.; Li, R.; Sun, X. Porous Dendritic Platinum Nanotubes with Extremely High Activity and Stability for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safari, M.; Ariff, M.; Mohamad, S. Sukuk Securities; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2014.
An edited book
Managing Development and Application of Digital Technologies: Research Insights in the Munich Center for Digital Technology & Management (CDTM); Kern, E.-M., Hegering, H.-G., Brügge, B., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, W.-C.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chien, H.-Y.; Bonner-Weir, S. Pancreatic Regeneration After Partial Pancreatectomy in Rodents. In Pancreatic Islet Biology; A. Hardikar, A., Ed.; Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp 111–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Letters.

Blog post
Davis, J. From Dashing Lizards To Splashing Hippos: London Zoo’s Animal Photography Awards 2016 (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NextGen Air Transportation System: FAA’s Metrics Can Be Used to Report on Status of Individual Programs, but Not of Overall NextGen Implementation or Outcomes; GAO-10-629; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez, V. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: A Policy Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Frank Ocean Takes Unusual Journey to No. 1. New York Times. August 30, 2016, p C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Letters
AbbreviationNano Lett.
ISSN (print)1530-6984
ISSN (online)1530-6992
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles