How to format your references using the Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kreiter A. Science at the sharp end of oppressive politics. Nature. 2014;506:133.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Scharfman HE, Hen R. Neuroscience. Is more neurogenesis always better? Science. 2007;315:336–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Irvine WTM, Vitelli V, Chaikin PM. Pleats in crystals on curved surfaces. Nature. 2010;468:947–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bernheim-Groswasser A, Wiesner S, Golsteyn RM, Carlier M-F, Sykes C. The dynamics of actin-based motility depend on surface parameters. Nature. 2002;417:308–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Miller MB. Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Nimmerjahn F, editor. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Antibody Activity. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhou X, Liu W, Li Z, Gao W. A Continuous Virtual Vector-Based Algorithm for Measuring Cardinality Distribution. In: Sun X-H, Qu W, Stojmenovic I, Zhou W, Li Z, Guo H, et al., editors. Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 14th International Conference, ICA3PP 2014, Dalian, China, August 24-27, 2014 Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Male Bearded Dragons Turn Female In The Heat [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FAA’s Implementation of the Expanded East Coast Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 May. Report No.: T-RCED-88-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Stoltzfus KM. The relationship between teachers’ training transfer and their perceptions of principal leadership style [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Trainer Denies Giving Banned Drugs to Jamaican Sprinters. New York Times. 2013 Jul 18;B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Emerg. Hosp. Med. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4884

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