How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris H. Tumour suppression: putting on the brakes. Nature (2004) 427:201.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramesh R, Schlom DG. Materials science. Orienting ferroelectric films. Science (2002) 296:1975–1976.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller CJ, Nichol RC, Batuski DJ. Acoustic oscillations in the early universe and today. Science (2001) 292:2302–2303.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Saadoun S, Papadopoulos MC, Hara-Chikuma M, Verkman AS. Impairment of angiogenesis and cell migration by targeted aquaporin-1 gene disruption. Nature (2005) 434:786–792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murthy DNP, Kurvinen M, Töyrylä I. Warranty Fraud Management: Reducing Fraud and Other Excess Costs in Warranty and Service Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2016).
An edited book
Lungarella M, Iida F, Bongard J, Pfeifer R eds. 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence: Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2007). X, 399 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Debenest P, Guarnieri M, Takita K, Fukushima EF, Hirose S, Tamura K, Kimura A, Kubokawa H, Iwama N, Shiga F, et al. “Expliner – Toward a Practical Robot for Inspection of High-Voltage Lines.,” In: Howard A, Iagnemma K, Kelly A, editors. Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 7th International Conference. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2010). p. 45–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pediatrics.

Blog post
Andrews R. Indonesia Aims To Become The World Leader In Volcanically Generated Electricity. IFLScience (2016)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Student Benefits for Postsecondary Students Should Be Discontinued. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1979).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McLeod DJ. From fear to freedom: Overcoming obstacles and living truthfully in a role. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA. New Audio Books Pack a Lot More Prose. New York Times (2006)TR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pediatrics
AbbreviationFront. Pediatr.
ISSN (online)2296-2360

Other styles