How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA. ARCHAELOGY: A Victim of the Black Sea Flood Found. Science (2000) 289:2021a–2a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horn PJ, Peterson CL. Molecular biology. Chromatin higher order folding--wrapping up transcription. Science (2002) 297:1824–1827.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilbaud R, Butler IB, Ellam RM. Abiotic pyrite formation produces a large Fe isotope fractionation. Science (2011) 332:1548–1551.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wilk T, Webster SC, Kuhn A, Rempe G. Single-atom single-photon quantum interface. Science (2007) 317:488–490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imbriale WA. Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2005).
An edited book
Michell D, Wilson JZ, Archer V eds. Bread and Roses: Voices of Australian Academics from the Working Class. Rotterdam: SensePublishers (2015). XVI, 186 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Söldner G, Kapitza R, Meier R. “Providing Context-Aware Adaptations Based on a Semantic Model.,” In: Felber P, Rouvoy R, editors. Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2011, Reykjavik, Iceland, June 6-9, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2011). p. 57–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pediatrics.

Blog post
Andrew D. Bizarre Cloud Formations Spotted Above British Columbia. IFLScience (2015)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Biosurveillance: Observations on the Cancellation of BioWatch Gen-3 and Future Considerations for the Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Melhorn SJ. The microstructure of food intake under conditions of high-fat diet, social stress and social subordination. [Doctoral dissertation]. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Ah, Spring, When Street Fairs Battle Each Other for Permits. New York Times (2003)146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pediatrics
AbbreviationFront. Pediatr.
ISSN (online)2296-2360

Other styles