How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts B. A wake-up call. Nature (2004) 431:1041.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalaany NY, Sabatini DM. Tumours with PI3K activation are resistant to dietary restriction. Nature (2009) 458:725–731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pagel M, Venditti C, Meade A. Large punctuational contribution of speciation to evolutionary divergence at the molecular level. Science (2006) 314:119–121.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee J, Sim SJ, Bott M, Um Y, Oh M-K, Woo HM. Succinate production from CO₂-grown microalgal biomass as carbon source using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum through consolidated bioprocessing. Sci Rep (2014) 4:5819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanoyevitch A. Introduction to Numerical Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2004).
An edited book
Demuth M. Determining Spectra in Quantum Theory. , ed. M. Krishna Boston, MA: Birkhäuser (2005).
A chapter in an edited book
Madea B, Noeker M, Franke I. “Child abuse — some aspects for neurosurgeons,” in Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery., eds. J. D. Pickard, N. Akalan, V. Benes, C. D. Rocco, V. V. Dolenc, J. L. Antunes, J. Schramm, M. Sindou (Vienna: Springer), 79–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pediatrics.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Rare Particle Decay Spotted. IFLScience (2015)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroads: Preliminary Observations on Rates, Competition, and Capacity Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2006).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park JK. Target Identification, Therapeutic Application and Maturation Mechanism of microRNAs. (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly TA. Solutions to the Urban Crisis. New York Times (1978)New Jersey WeeklyNJ26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pediatrics
AbbreviationFront. Pediatr.
ISSN (online)2296-2360

Other styles