How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bertone G. The moment of truth for WIMP dark matter. Nature (2010) 468:389–393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atkins JF, Gesteland RF. mRNA readout at 40. Nature (2001) 414:693.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hastings IM, Bray PG, Ward SA. Parasitology. A requiem for chloroquine. Science (2002) 298:74–75.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Abeyrathne CD, Halgamuge MN, Farrell PM, Skafidas E. An ab-initio computational method to determine dielectric properties of biological materials. Sci Rep (2013) 3:1796.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tan Y. Artificial Immune System Applications in Computersecurity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2016).
An edited book
Cuenca P, Orozco-Barbosa L eds. Personal Wireless Communications: IFIP TC6 11th International Conference, PWC 2006, Albacete, Spain, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2006).
A chapter in an edited book
Leibrandt K, Lorenz T, Nierhoff T, Hirche S. “Modelling Human Gameplay at Pool and Countering It with an Anthropomorphic Robot,” in Social Robotics: 5th International Conference, ICSR 2013, Bristol, UK, October 27-29, 2013, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. G. Herrmann, M. J. Pearson, A. Lenz, P. Bremner, A. Spiers, U. Leonards (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 30–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pediatrics.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Gravitational Waves Help Unravel The History Of Black Holes. IFLScience (2016) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1986).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amodeo GA. Structural and biochemical characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homolog SNF1. (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. A Quiet Member of the Canon. New York Times (2017)BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pediatrics
AbbreviationFront. Pediatr.
ISSN (online)2296-2360

Other styles