How to format your references using the Strahlentherapie und Onkologie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Der Lee S (2001) Geology. Deep below North America. Science 294:1297–1298
A journal article with 2 authors
Adam D, Butler D (2003) Comet mission hangs in the balance. Nature 421:102
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu M-H, Wan L-Z, Zhang Y-Q (2014) A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material. Sci Rep 4:4428
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tsukazaki T, Mori H, Echizen Y, et al (2011) Structure and function of a membrane component SecDF that enhances protein export. Nature 474:235–238

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanbésien O (2012) Artificial Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Cioffi N, Rai M (2012) Nano-Antimicrobials: Progress and Prospects. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Clariana RB (2010) Multi-decision Approaches for Eliciting Knowledge Structure. In: Ifenthaler D, Pirnay-Dummer P, Seel NM (eds) Computer-Based Diagnostics and Systematic Analysis of Knowledge. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 41–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strahlentherapie und Onkologie.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) 3D Cancer Vaccine Recruits Infection-Fighting Cells. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashirgade A (2010) Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Forecast Hints That Hurricane Matthew Could Return. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStrahlentherapie und Onkologie
AbbreviationStrahlenther. Onkol.
ISSN (print)0179-7158
ISSN (online)1439-099X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles