How to format your references using the Music Education Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Music Education Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schapira, Matthieu. 2015. “STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. Chromatin Complex, Crystal Clear.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6258): 278–279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rensberger, J. M., and M. Watabe. 2000. “Fine Structure of Bone in Dinosaurs, Birds and Mammals.” Nature 406 (6796): 619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rössler, U. K., A. N. Bogdanov, and C. Pfleiderer. 2006. “Spontaneous Skyrmion Ground States in Magnetic Metals.” Nature 442 (7104): 797–801.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Jie, Haifeng Zhang, Hengkai Meng, Yan Zhu, Guanhui Bao, Yanping Zhang, Yin Li, and Yanhe Ma. 2014. “Discovery of a Super-Strong Promoter Enables Efficient Production of Heterologous Proteins in Cyanobacteria.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, Flora M., Arokia Nathan, Yiliang Wu, and Beng S. Ong. 2011. Organic Thin Film Transistor Integration. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Loue, Sana, and Martha Sajatovic, eds. 2009. Determinants of Minority Mental Health and Wellness. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vitas, Duško, Ljubomir Popović, Cvetana Krstev, Ivan Obradović, Gordana Pavlović-Lažetić, and Mladen Stanojević. 2012. “JEЗИЧКE TEXHOЛOГИJE ЗA CPПCКИ JEЗИК.” In The Serbian Language in the Digital Age, edited by Georg Rehm and Hans Uszkoreit, 20–39. White Paper Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Music Education Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “How The Science Of Human Behavior Is Beginning To Reshape The US Government.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Federal Surplus Ships: Government Efforts to Address the Growing Backlog of Ships Awaiting Disposal. NSIAD-99-18. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng, Yen Hua-Hui. 2008. “Motivation of Participation in Inservice Training Based on Problem Solving: A Modified Delphi Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Remembering Sócrates, Who Made the Game Beautiful.” New York Times, December 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schapira 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Schapira 2015; Rensberger and Watabe 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rensberger and Watabe 2000)
  • Three authors: (Rössler, Bogdanov, and Pfleiderer 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusic Education Research
AbbreviationMusic Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)1461-3808
ISSN (online)1469-9893

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