How to format your references using the Music Education Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Music Education Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt, Rush. 2012. “US Election: Politicians Should Think like Scientists.” Nature 489 (7417): 493–494.
A journal article with 2 authors
Temel, Yasin, and Ali Jahanshahi. 2015. “Neuroscience. Treating Brain Disorders with Neuromodulation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6229): 1418–1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berg, Erez, Max A. Metlitski, and Subir Sachdev. 2012. “Sign-Problem-Free Quantum Monte Carlo of the Onset of Antiferromagnetism in Metals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6114): 1606–1609.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xu, Xiaobao, Dekang Huang, Kun Cao, Mingkui Wang, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, and Michael Grätzel. 2013. “Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Multilayer Films as Efficient Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.” Scientific Reports 3: 1489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doyle, James F. 2005. Modern Experimental Stress Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Almeida, Luis, Jianmin Ji, Gerald Steinbauer, and Sean Luke, eds. 2015. RoboCup 2015: Robot World Cup XIX. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 9513. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Roorda, Debora L., Helma M. Y. Koomen, and Frans J. Oort. 2012. “An Observational Study of Teachers’ Affilliation and Control Behaviours towards Kindergarten Children.” In Interpersonal Relationships in Education: An Overview of Contemporary Research, edited by Perry Den Brok, Jan van Tartwijk, and Jack Levy, 51–65. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Music Education Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “‘Alternative Facts’: A Psychiatrist’s Guide To Twisted Relationships To Truth.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan. GAO-12-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilbur, Lara Jean. 2017. “Perceptions of Missouri Public School Early Childhood Teachers and Administrators in Regard to Technology and Current Practices.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, Michael M. 2017. “Right-Wing Provocateur Is Given More Fodder for His Conspiracies.” New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holt 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Holt 2012; Temel and Jahanshahi 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Temel and Jahanshahi 2015)
  • Three authors: (Berg, Metlitski, and Sachdev 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusic Education Research
AbbreviationMusic Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)1461-3808
ISSN (online)1469-9893

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