How to format your references using the Music Education Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Music Education Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roelfsema, Pieter R. 2002. “Do Neurons Predict the Future?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5553): 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gravitz, Lauren, and Stephen Pincock. 2014. “Sickle-Cell Disease.” Nature 515 (7526): S1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliokh, Konstantin Y., Daria Smirnova, and Franco Nori. 2015. “OPTICS. Quantum Spin Hall Effect of Light.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6242): 1448–1451.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, Yue, Albert H. Kim, Tomoko Yamada, Bei Wu, Parizad M. Bilimoria, Yoshiho Ikeuchi, Núria de la Iglesia, Jie Shen, and Azad Bonni. 2009. “A Cdc20-APC Ubiquitin Signaling Pathway Regulates Presynaptic Differentiation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5952): 575–578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kapterev, Alexei. 2011. Presentation Secrets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hull, Elizabeth. 2005. Requirements Engineering. Edited by Kenneth Jackson and Jeremy Dick. Second Edition. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Franco, Jacopo, Ben Kaczer, and Guido Groeseneken. 2014. “Negative Bias Temperature Instability in Nanoscale Devices.” In Reliability of High Mobility SiGe Channel MOSFETs for Future CMOS Applications, edited by Ben Kaczer and Guido Groeseneken, 131–160. Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Music Education Research.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Lego’s Fantastic Instructions For Parents In 1973.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Computer Buys: Air Force Logistics Modernization Program Should Comply With Brooks Act. IMTEC-86-16. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Redcay, Jessica D. 2014. “Kindergarten Students’ Reading Performance and Perceptions of Ludus Reading: A Mixed-Method Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, James R. 2017. “A Sequel of Sorts, Made to Challenge Singers.” New York Times, June 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roelfsema 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Roelfsema 2002; Gravitz and Pincock 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gravitz and Pincock 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bliokh, Smirnova, and Nori 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusic Education Research
AbbreviationMusic Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)1461-3808
ISSN (online)1469-9893

Other styles