How to format your references using the Music Education Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Music Education Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triplett, B. 2000. “Astronomers Fume over Night Light.” Nature 405 (6790): 987–988.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ngai, Jacqueline T., and Diane S. Srivastava. 2006. “Predators Accelerate Nutrient Cycling in a Bromeliad Ecosystem.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5801): 963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berken, Antje, Christoph Thomas, and Alfred Wittinghofer. 2005. “A New Family of RhoGEFs Activates the Rop Molecular Switch in Plants.” Nature 436 (7054): 1176–1180.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Myhrvold, Cameron, Catherine A. Freije, Jonathan S. Gootenberg, Omar O. Abudayyeh, Hayden C. Metsky, Ann F. Durbin, Max J. Kellner, et al. 2018. “Field-Deployable Viral Diagnostics Using CRISPR-Cas13.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 360 (6387): 444–448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rochange, Christine, Sascha Uhrig, and Pascal Sainrat. 2013. Time-Predictable Architectures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chen, Ke, and Anton Ravindran, eds. 2016. Forging Connections between Computational Mathematics and Computational Geometry: Papers from the 3rd International Conference on Computational Mathematics and Computational Geometry. Vol. 124. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhong, Jun, and Ning-Ning Dou. 2016. “A Novel Hypothesis on the Mechanism of Hemifacial Spasm.” In Microvascular Decompression Surgery, edited by Shi-Ting Li, Jun Zhong, and Raymond F. Sekula Jr., 51–58. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Music Education Research.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “New Metal Composite Can Float On Water.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Administration of the Head Start Program by the Mountain Community Action Program, Inc. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar, Gabrielle Eileen. 2011. “Playing with Movies: An Examination of the Interactions between Music and Film in ‘Fantasie for Horn and Film.’” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin. 2007. “Lesson One: The Price the Contractor Quotes Is an Estimate.” New York Times, February 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triplett 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Triplett 2000; Ngai and Srivastava 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ngai and Srivastava 2006)
  • Three authors: (Berken, Thomas, and Wittinghofer 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Myhrvold et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusic Education Research
AbbreviationMusic Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)1461-3808
ISSN (online)1469-9893

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