How to format your references using the Music Education Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Music Education Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoyt, M. Andrew. 2006. “Cell Biology. Extinguishing a Cell Cycle Checkpoint.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5787): 624–625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marone, Federica, and Barbara Romanowicz. 2007. “The Depth Distribution of Azimuthal Anisotropy in the Continental Upper Mantle.” Nature 447 (7141): 198–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, Daniel, Qiu-Xing Jiang, and Roderick MacKinnon. 2006. “Phospholipids and the Origin of Cationic Gating Charges in Voltage Sensors.” Nature 444 (7120): 775–779.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bernard, Christophe, Anne Anderson, Albert Becker, Nicholas P. Poolos, Heinz Beck, and Daniel Johnston. 2004. “Acquired Dendritic Channelopathy in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5683): 532–535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, Hugo. 2012. Applied Building Physics. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Lyte, Mark, ed. 2016. Microbial Endocrinology: Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health. 2nd ed. 2016. Vol. 874. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Duggan, Jim. 2007. “Using System Dynamics and Multiple Objective Optimization to Support Policy Analysis for Complex Systems.” In Complex Decision Making: Theory and Practice, edited by H. Qudrat-Ullah, J. M. Spector, and P. I. Davidsen, 59–81. Understanding Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Music Education Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “AI Can Predict How Much Longer You Have Left To Live.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Information Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results. T-AIMD-96-46. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webber, Nathaniel T. 2012. “Peptide Ion Conformation Studies and the 157 Nm Photofragmentation of Arginine Containing Dipeptides.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “Yoga’s Serious. Except When It’s Not.” New York Times, July 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoyt 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hoyt 2006; Marone and Romanowicz 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marone and Romanowicz 2007)
  • Three authors: (Schmidt, Jiang, and MacKinnon 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bernard et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusic Education Research
AbbreviationMusic Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)1461-3808
ISSN (online)1469-9893

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