How to format your references using the MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E (2006) Biomedical funding remains flat. Nature 439:644
A journal article with 2 authors
Ye C, Tsukruk VV (2015) Materials assembly. Designing two-dimensional materials that spring rapidly into three-dimensional shapes. Science 347:130–131
A journal article with 3 authors
Antonioni A, Sanchez A, Tomassini M (2014) Global information and mobility support coordination among humans. Sci Rep 4:6458
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Körding E, Rupen M, Knigge C, et al (2008) A transient radio jet in an erupting dwarf nova. Science 320:1318–1320

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Takezawa K (2005) Introduction to Nonparametric Regression: Takezawa/Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lindner W, Mesiti M, Türker C, et al (2005) Current Trends in Database Technology - EDBT 2004 Workshops: EDBT 2004 Workshops PhD, DataX, PIM, P2P&DB, and ClustWeb, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, March 14-18, 2004. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Houy C, Fettke P, Loos P (2012) Understanding Understandability of Conceptual Models – What Are We Actually Talking about? In: Atzeni P, Cheung D, Ram S (eds) Conceptual Modeling: 31st International Conference ER 2012, Florence, Italy, October 15-18, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 64–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) American Farmers May Be Directly Feeding Cows Skittles In Odd Conspiracy. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Within-School Discrimination: Inadequate Title VI Enforcement by Education’s Office for Civil Rights. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu Y-C (2009) A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2010) From Insider, a Comics Venture to Help Newcomers. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

AbbreviationMusculoskelet. Surg.
ISSN (print)2035-5106
ISSN (online)2035-5114
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles