How to format your references using the MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Denrell J (2008) Sociology. Indirect social influence. Science 321:47–48
A journal article with 2 authors
Lauder JM, Oppenheim R (2001) Obituary. Viktor Hamburger (1900-2001). Nature 412:496
A journal article with 3 authors
Loudon JC, Mathur ND, Midgley PA (2002) Charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO3. Nature 420:797–800
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shoham S, Halgren E, Maynard EM, Normann RA (2001) Motor-cortical activity in tetraplegics. Nature 413:793

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pachamanova DA, Fabozzi FJ (2016) Portfolio Construction and Analytics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Moens G (2010) Commercial Law of the European Union. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Evliya H (2007) ENERGY STORAGE FOR SUSTAINABLE FUTURE—A SOLUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING. In: Paksoy HÖ (ed) Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption: Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 87–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Earth’s Magnetic Field May Be Half A Billion Years Older Than Previously Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Responses to Questions for the Record: February 11, 2009, Hearing on the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2009. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley M (2009) Weaving Into the Glimmer. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steinmetz P by G (2014) Let a Hundred McMansions Bloom. New York Times MM51

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

AbbreviationMusculoskelet. Surg.
ISSN (print)2035-5106
ISSN (online)2035-5114
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles