How to format your references using the MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Veltman C (2003) Genesis of a high-tech hub. Nature 426:700–704
A journal article with 2 authors
Bonn D, Denn MM (2009) Materials science. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis. Science 324:1401–1402
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandy D, Muñoz-Jaramillo A, Martens PCH (2011) The unusual minimum of sunspot cycle 23 caused by meridional plasma flow variations. Nature 471:80–82
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Varoon K, Zhang X, Elyassi B, et al (2011) Dispersible exfoliated zeolite nanosheets and their application as a selective membrane. Science 334:72–75

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith MC, Sherman DM (2009) Goat Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Garcea RL, DiMaio D (2007) The Papillomaviruses. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Hofmuth M (2014) Identifying Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of Successful Entrepreneurs. In: Weber S, Oser FK, Achtenhagen F, et al (eds) Becoming an Entrepreneur. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 55–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Outer Envelope of Flu Virus Simulated for the First Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Office of Personnel Management: Improvements Needed to Ensure Successful Retirement Systems Modernization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wrobleski MM (2010) The challenge of teen nutrition: An ecological view of socio-cognitive influences on urban, African-American adolescent diet quality. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) How Penguins Make A Home on Road Ice. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

AbbreviationMusculoskelet. Surg.
ISSN (print)2035-5106
ISSN (online)2035-5114
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles