How to format your references using the MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verrijzer CP (2001) Transcription factor IID--not so basal after all. Science 293:2010–2011
A journal article with 2 authors
Etienne-Manneville S, Hall A (2003) Cdc42 regulates GSK-3beta and adenomatous polyposis coli to control cell polarity. Nature 421:753–756
A journal article with 3 authors
Nabel GJ, Wolinsky SM, Haynes BF (2012) Retrospective. Norman L. Letvin (1949-2012). Science 336:1653
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yusupov MM, Yusupova GZ, Baucom A, et al (2001) Crystal structure of the ribosome at 5.5 A resolution. Science 292:883–896

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dean JR (2005) Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy: Dean/Plasma. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Grabot B, Vallespir B, Gomes S, et al (2014) Advances in Production Management Systems. Innovative and Knowledge-Based Production Management in a Global-Local World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2014, Ajaccio, France, September 20-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Thomson RR, Psaila ND, Bookey HT, et al (2012) Controlling the Cross-section of Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Optical Waveguides. In: Osellame R, Cerullo G, Ramponi R (eds) Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 93–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) John Nash: A Beautiful Mind And Its Exquisite Mathematics. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Telecommunications: Charges for Itemized Cellular Telephone Bills. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang C-C (2013) Fate of bacterial and viral indicators in an advanced wastewater treatment plant. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George RP (2012) Interpretive Freedom. New York Times BR22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

AbbreviationMusculoskelet. Surg.
ISSN (print)2035-5106
ISSN (online)2035-5114
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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