How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A., 2011. Pharmacogenomics: playing the odds. Nature 474, S9-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teruel, M.N., Meyer, T., 2002. Parallel single-cell monitoring of receptor-triggered membrane translocation of a calcium-sensing protein module. Science 295, 1910–1912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, R., Vannice, K.S., Vosshall, L.B., 2007. An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila. Nature 450, 289–293.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rangroo Thrane, V., Thrane, A.S., Plog, B.A., Thiyagarajan, M., Iliff, J.J., Deane, R., Nagelhus, E.A., Nedergaard, M., 2013. Paravascular microcirculation facilitates rapid lipid transport and astrocyte signaling in the brain. Sci. Rep. 3, 2582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duckert, G.H., 2010. Practical Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Stanley, K.O., 2015. Why Greatness Cannot Be Planned: The Myth of the Objective. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Bitter, M., 2011. Contradictions of the Commodity Carbon – On the Material and Symbolic Production of a Market, in: Altvater, E., Brunnengräber, A. (Eds.), After Cancún: Climate Governance or Climate Conflicts. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp. 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. What Is Kratom And Why Has The DEA Decided It’s As Dangerous As Heroin? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. FAA Registry Systems: Key Steps Need to Be Performed Before Modernization Proceeds (No. IMTEC-91-29). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzaga Reed, R.R., 2017. The Impact of a Community-Based College Access Program at a Midwestern Institution (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2013. Cities Urge Public Pension Funds to Divest From Gun Makers. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Maxmen, 2011; Teruel and Meyer, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teruel and Meyer, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Rangroo Thrane et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
AbbreviationMult. Scler. Relat. Disord.
ISSN (print)2211-0348
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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