How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pleasants, S., 2014. Epidemiology: a moving target. Nature 515, S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanson, B., Voss, D., 2007. Sunrise. Introduction. Hinode. Science 318, 1571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goncharov, A.F., Struzhkin, V.V., Jacobsen, S.D., 2006. Reduced radiative conductivity of low-spin (Mg,Fe)O in the lower mantle. Science 312, 1205–1208.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cheng, M.Y., Bullock, C.M., Li, C., Lee, A.G., Bermak, J.C., Belluzzi, J., Weaver, D.R., Leslie, F.M., Zhou, Q.-Y., 2002. Prokineticin 2 transmits the behavioural circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Nature 417, 405–410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee, G., 2012. Bioethics for beginners. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Daniels, J.C. (Ed.), 2015. Butterfly Conservation in North America: Efforts to help save our charismatic microfauna, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Blauert, J., Xiang, N., 2009. Electromechanic and Electroacoustic Transduction, in: Xiang, N. (Ed.), Acoustics for Engineers: Troy Lectures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. You Can Now Buy Tesla’s Solar Roof Tiles (If You’re Very Rich) [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Glossary of EDP Terminology (No. 130989). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, S.S., 2013. Professionals’ perceptions of effective interventions with elderly hoarders (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2012. What He Won’t Say, the White Flag Will. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pleasants, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hanson and Voss, 2007; Pleasants, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hanson and Voss, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Cheng et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
AbbreviationMult. Scler. Relat. Disord.
ISSN (print)2211-0348
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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