How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shell, K.M., 2012. Climate change. Constraining cloud feedbacks. Science 338, 755–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao, Z., Haile, S.M., 2004. A high-performance cathode for the next generation of solid-oxide fuel cells. Nature 431, 170–173.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rees, M., Koppelman, B., Davison, N., 2010. Scientific steps to nuclear disarmament. Nature 465, 290–291.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hashimoto, S., Matsuura, T., Nanko, K., Linkov, I., Shaw, G., Kaneko, S., 2013. Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci. Rep. 3, 2564.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, A.K., 2014. Fruit and Vegetables. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Finnell, J.T., Dixon, B.E. (Eds.), 2016. Clinical Informatics Study Guide: Text and Review, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Grzegorzewski, P., 2010. Algorithms for Trapezoidal Approximations of Fuzzy Numbers Preserving the Expected Interval, in: Bouchon-Meunier, B., Magdalena, L., Ojeda-Aciego, M., Verdegay, J.-L., Yager, R.R. (Eds.), Foundations of Reasoning under Uncertainty, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. The Brains Of Amputees Remember Their Lost Limbs For Decades [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Postsecondary Education: Student Outcomes Vary at For-Profit, Nonprofit, and Public Schools (No. GAO-12-143). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, L.J., 2017. From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013. Out of Character, but in His Element. New York Times E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shell, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Shao and Haile, 2004; Shell, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shao and Haile, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hashimoto et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
AbbreviationMult. Scler. Relat. Disord.
ISSN (print)2211-0348
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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