How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cerutti, A., 2010. Immunology. IgA changes the rules of memory. Science 328, 1646–1647.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heath, R.J., Rock, C.O., 2000. A triclosan-resistant bacterial enzyme. Nature 406, 145–146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghosh, S., Sood, A.K., Kumar, N., 2003. Carbon nanotube flow sensors. Science 299, 1042–1044.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Belle, M.D.C., Diekman, C.O., Forger, D.B., Piggins, H.D., 2009. Daily electrical silencing in the mammalian circadian clock. Science 326, 281–284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams, F., Aizawa, K., 2010. The Bounds of Cognition. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Jäger, W., Rannacher, R., Warnatz, J. (Eds.), 2007. Reactive Flows, Diffusion and Transport: From Experiments via Mathematical Modeling to Numerical Simulation and Optimization Final Report of SFB (Collaborative Research Center) 359. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerosa, M., Marconi, A., Pistore, M., Traverso, P., 2015. An Open Platform for Children’s Independent Mobility, in: Helfert, M., Krempels, K.-H., Klein, C., Donellan, B., Guiskhin, O. (Eds.), Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems: 4th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2015, and 1st International Conference VEHITS 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 50–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Certain Traits Could Come From Our Mother’s Bacteria, Rather Than Our Genes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling (No. GAO-16-389R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kranz, T.E., 2017. Body, Land, and Memory: Counter-Narratives in the Poetry of Minnie Bruce Pratt, Brenda Marie Osbey, and Natasha Trethewey (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017. A Respected Figure, Undone by His Lies. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cerutti, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cerutti, 2010; Heath and Rock, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heath and Rock, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Belle et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
AbbreviationMult. Scler. Relat. Disord.
ISSN (print)2211-0348
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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