How to format your references using the Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (ICVTS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1] Pielke RA Sr. Atmospheric science. Land use and climate change. Science 2005;310:1625–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1] Littman DR, Singh H. Immunology. Asymmetry and immune memory. Science 2007;315:1673–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1] Royo-Torres R, Cobos A, Alcalá L. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science 2006;314:1925–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1] Kumar A, Maitra A, Sumit M, Ramaswamy S, Shivashankar GV. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus. Sci Rep 2014;4:3781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1] Ham BM. Proteomics of Biological Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
[1] Maltz MD, Rice SK, editors. Envisioning Criminology: Researchers on Research as a Process of Discovery. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1] Zmitko M, Krejcar O. Idea of Personal Digital Memories Using Smart Application. In: Park JJ (jong H, Chao H-C, Arabnia H, Yen NY, Eds. Advanced Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering: Future Information Technology Volume 2 Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016; pp. 33–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1] Carpineti A. High-Resolution Images Of The Schiaparelli Crash Site. IFLScience. IFLScience 2016 [accessed 2018] .Available from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1] Government Accountability Office. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Taking Steps to Better Target Its Oversight, but Assessment of Results Is Needed to Determine Impact. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1] Clement TE. The makings of digital modernism: Rereading Gertrude Stein’s “The Making of Americans” and poetry by Elsa von Freytag -Loringhoven. University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1] Hostetter MA. Dear Dad: We’ve Been Gay for a Really Long Time. New York Times. 2016 Sep. 30ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInteractive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery
ISSN (print)1569-9293
ISSN (online)1569-9285

Other styles