How to format your references using the Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (ICVTS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1] Nolet G. Geophysics. Slabs do not go gently. Science 2009;324:1152–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1] Cheng C, Hartwig JF. Rhodium-catalyzed intermolecular C-H silylation of arenes with high steric regiocontrol. Science 2014;343:853–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1] Shekhawat G, Tark S-H, Dravid VP. MOSFET-Embedded microcantilevers for measuring deflection in biomolecular sensors. Science 2006;311:1592–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1] Qin LC, Zhao X, Hirahara K, Miyamoto Y, Ando Y, Iijima S. The smallest carbon nanotube. Nature 2000;408:50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1] Grigg NS. Infrastructure Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
[1] Lascombes P, editor. Flexible Intramedullary Nailing in Children: The Nancy University Manual. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1] Breu J, Menth M. An Improved Relevance Estimation Function for Cooperative Awareness Messages in VANETs. In: Sikora A, Berbineau M, Vinel A, Jonsson M, Pirovano A, Aguado M, Eds. Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 6th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, Offenburg, Germany, May 6-7, 2014. Proceedings Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1] Andrews R. Brand New T. Rex Fossil Is One Of The “Most Significant Specimens” Ever Found. IFLScience. IFLScience 2016 [accessed 2018] .Available from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1] Government Accountability Office. Air Force ADP: Depot Maintenance System Development Risks Are High. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1] Elizalde K. Relationship between Latino adolescents and their mental health well-being: A quantitative study. California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1] Kelly M. Clinton Campaign Skirted Taxes, Report Says. New York Times. 1993 Apr. 1719.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInteractive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery
ISSN (print)1569-9293
ISSN (online)1569-9285

Other styles