How to format your references using the Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (ICVTS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1] Herrmann WA. Obituary: Ernst Otto Fischer (1918-2007). Nature 2007;449:156.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1] Pena LD, Goldstein SL. Thermohaline circulation crisis and impacts during the mid-Pleistocene transition. Science 2014;345:318–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1] Sugrue LP, Corrado GS, Newsome WT. Matching behavior and the representation of value in the parietal cortex. Science 2004;304:1782–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1] Liu B, Bhatt D, Oltvai ZN, Greenberger JS, Bahar I. Significance of p53 dynamics in regulating apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation, and polypharmacological strategies. Sci Rep 2014;4:6245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1] Prud’Homme R. Flows and Chemical Reactions in Heterogeneous Mixtures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
[1] Axelsson S. Understanding Intrusion Detection Through Visualization. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1] Baujard A, Igersheim H. Framed-field Experiment on Approval Voting and Evaluation Voting. Some Teachings to Reform the French Presidential Electoral System. In: Dolez B, Grofman B, Laurent A, Eds. In Situ and Laboratory Experiments on Electoral Law Reform: French Presidential Elections Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1] O`Callaghan J. Hawaii Is At Risk Of A Mega-Tsunami. IFLScience. IFLScience 2016 [accessed 2018] .Available from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1] Government Accountability Office. Privacy Policy Activities of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1] Andrews A. Yoga as mental health treatment for cancer survivors: A grant proposal. California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1] Furber M, Pérez-Peña R. Family Asks: Why Did Police Kill Woman Who Called 911? New York Times. 2017 Jul. 18A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInteractive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery
ISSN (print)1569-9293
ISSN (online)1569-9285

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