How to format your references using the Multimodal Technologies and Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford, H. Ahead of the pack. Nature 2009, 459, 286–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, T.; Shadlen, M.N. Probabilistic reasoning by neurons. Nature 2007, 447, 1075–1080.
A journal article with 3 authors
White, L.E.; Coppola, D.M.; Fitzpatrick, D. The contribution of sensory experience to the maturation of orientation selectivity in ferret visual cortex. Nature 2001, 411, 1049–1052.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frazier, M.E.; Johnson, G.M.; Thomassen, D.G.; Oliver, C.E.; Patrinos, A. Realizing the potential of the genome revolution: the genomes to life program. Science 2003, 300, 290–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Werner, M. Global Displacements; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118941959.
An edited book
Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Hydrogen Sulfide; Moore, P.K., Whiteman, M., Eds.; Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 230; ISBN 9783319181431.
A chapter in an edited book
Prasanna, B.M.; Cairns, J.; Xu, Y. Genomic Tools and Strategies for Breeding Climate Resilient Cereals. In Genomics and Breeding for Climate-Resilient Crops: Vol. 1 Concepts and Strategies; Kole, C., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 213–239 ISBN 9783642370441.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. ‘Godzilla’ El Niño: Time To Prepare For Mega-Droughts Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Safety: Opportunities Exist for FAA to Refine the Controller Staffing Process; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stockman, S.B. Daughters of Yahweh: Recovering the deep feminine from the Yahweh complex. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. Size of Manhunt Area for 2nd Prison Escapee Significantly Expanded. New York Times 2015, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
ISSN (online)2414-4088

Other styles