How to format your references using the Multimodal Technologies and Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reipurth, B. George Herbig (1920-2013). Nature 2013, 503, 470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galán, J.E.; Wolf-Watz, H. Protein Delivery into Eukaryotic Cells by Type III Secretion Machines. Nature 2006, 444, 567–573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Terray, A.; Oakey, J.; Marr, D.W.M. Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices. Science 2002, 296, 1841–1844.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hillman, T.R.; Yamauchi, T.; Choi, W.; Dasari, R.R.; Feld, M.S.; Park, Y.; Yaqoob, Z. Digital Optical Phase Conjugation for Delivering Two-Dimensional Images through Turbid Media. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aronson, D.R. Evidence-Based Technical Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9781118268315.
An edited book
Aman, B. Mobility in Process Calculi and Natural Computing; Ciobanu, G., Ed.; Natural Computing Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642248665.
A chapter in an edited book
Hyysalo, J.; Lehto, J.; Aaramaa, S.; Kelanti, M. Supporting Cognitive Work in Software Development Workflows. In Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 14th International Conference, PROFES 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings; Heidrich, J., Oivo, M., Jedlitschka, A., Baldassarre, M.T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 20–34 ISBN 9783642392580.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction.

Blog post
Andrews, R. What’s Going On With These Weird Ripply Clouds? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Railroad Safety: Weaknesses in FRA’s Safety Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah, N. High Performance Cryptography for Electronic Product Code for Internet of Things Applications. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. A Caretaker and Protector Dreams of the ‘Fullest’ Life Possible for Her Sister. New York Times 2016, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
ISSN (online)2414-4088

Other styles