How to format your references using the Multimodal Technologies and Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl, P. Applied Physics: The Virtues of Tiling. Nature 2014, 516, 178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Volz, J.; Rauschenbeutel, A. Applied Physics. Triggering an Optical Transistor with One Photon. Science 2013, 341, 725–726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, B.K.; Siprashvili, Z.; Khavari, P.A. Advances in Skin Grafting and Treatment of Cutaneous Wounds. Science 2014, 346, 941–945.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mazzali, P.A.; Deng, J.; Nomoto, K.; Sauer, D.N.; Pian, E.; Tominaga, N.; Tanaka, M.; Maeda, K.; Filippenko, A.V. A Neutron-Star-Driven X-Ray Flash Associated with Supernova SN 2006aj. Nature 2006, 442, 1018–1020.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Unhelkar, B. Verification and Validation for Quality of UML 2.0 Models; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471734321.
An edited book
Hermann, M. Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations: Analytical Approximation and Numerical Methods; Saravi, M., Ed.; Springer India: New Delhi, 2016; ISBN 9788132228103.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeakley, J.A. Urban Hydrology in the Pacific Northwest. In Wild Salmonids in the Urbanizing Pacific Northwest; Yeakley, J.A., Maas-Hebner, K.G., Hughes, R.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 59–74 ISBN 9781461488170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Common Pesticide Damages Bee Brains And Affects Colony Performance (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Status of Farmers Home Administration Efforts To Install Office Automation; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
John, S.P. Drying without Dying: The Resurrection Fern Pleopeltis Polypodioides. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D.A. Weekender | Great Barrington, Mass. New York Times 2003, F7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
ISSN (online)2414-4088

Other styles