How to format your references using the Multimodal Technologies and Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDevitt, J. The Candidate. Nature 2006, 440, 580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frohlich, M.W.; Chase, M.W. After a Dozen Years of Progress the Origin of Angiosperms Is Still a Great Mystery. Nature 2007, 450, 1184–1189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J.; An, J.; Ting, C.S. Interaction-Induced Localization of Mobile Impurities in Ultracold Systems. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3147.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pachoud, A.; Jaiswal, M.; Wang, Y.; Hong, B.-H.; Ahn, J.-H.; Loh, K.P.; Ozyilmaz, B. Multiple Virtual Tunneling of Dirac Fermions in Granular Graphene. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort, H. Next Generation SDH/SONET; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470091227.
An edited book
Virtual Colonoscopy: A Practical Guide; Lefere, P., Gryspeerdt, S., Eds.; Medical Radiology, Diagnostic Imaging; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783540798798.
A chapter in an edited book
Farhadian, C.E.; Emmons, R.A. The Psychology of Forgiveness in the World Religions. In Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Psychological Pathways to Conflict Transformation and Peace Building; Paloutzian, R.F., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; pp. 55–70 ISBN 9781441901804.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Here’s What Your House Dust Reveals About You Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kennedy, K.T. A Heuristic Study of Religious Spirituality and Meaningful Work. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A. Brownsville Residents Seek Answers After a Mentally Ill Ex-Convict Is Fatally Shot. New York Times 2016, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
ISSN (online)2414-4088

Other styles