How to format your references using the Multimodal Technologies and Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kielpinski, D. Quantum Physics: Quantum Sound Waves Stick Together. Nature 2015, 527, 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galiana, I.; Green, C. Let the Global Technology Race Begin. Nature 2009, 462, 570–571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sergio, F.; Newton, I.; Marchesi, L. Conservation: Top Predators and Biodiversity. Nature 2005, 436, 192.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Z.-L.; Guo, R.; Ding, L.-X.; Tong, Y.-X.; Li, G.-R. Controllable Template-Assisted Electrodeposition of Single- and Multi-Walled Nanotube Arrays for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rainey, L.D. Confucius & Confucianism; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444323597.
An edited book
Atlas of Clinical Neurology; Rosenberg, R.N., Ed.; Third Edition.; Current Medicine Group: London, 2009; ISBN 9781573402835.
A chapter in an edited book
Jain, V. Domain Adaptation for Face Detection. In Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing; Singh, R., Vatsa, M., Majumdar, A., Kumar, A., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer India: New Delhi, 2016; pp. 37–54 ISBN 9788132226246.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. These Are Some Of The Most Stunning Medical Images Of The Year (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Medicare Automated Systems: Weaknesses in Managing Information Technology Hinder Fight Against Fraud and Abuse; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Connell, M. Escaping Intersections. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
ISSN (online)2414-4088

Other styles