How to format your references using the Multimodal Technologies and Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinstein, J.N. Biochemistry. A postgenomic visual icon. Science 2008, 319, 1772–1773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Killingsworth, M.A.; Gilbert, D.T. A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science 2010, 330, 932.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moyen, J.-F.; Stevens, G.; Kisters, A. Record of mid-Archaean subduction from metamorphism in the Barberton terrain, South Africa. Nature 2006, 442, 559–562.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
White, J.D.; Chen, J.; Matsiev, D.; Auerbach, D.J.; Wodtke, A.M. Conversion of large-amplitude vibration to electron excitation at a metal surface. Nature 2005, 433, 503–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gao, J. Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Design and Device Modeling; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010; ISBN 9780470827369.
An edited book
Geospatial Visualisation; Moore, A., Drecki, I., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642122880.
A chapter in an edited book
Analide, C.; Abelha, A.; Machado, J.; Neves, J. An Agent Based Approach to the Selection Dilemma in CBR. In Intelligent Distributed Computing, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2008, Catania, Italy, 2008; Badica, C., Mangioni, G., Carchiolo, V., Burdescu, D.D., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 35–44 ISBN 9783540852568.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimodal Technologies and Interaction.

Blog post
Davis, J. The Rise Of Border Fences Across Europe And Asia Has Unintended Consequences For Wildlife Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barajas, D. The marginalization of Zitkala-Ša and Wendy Rose. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K. Marathon Presses On as Backlash Builds. New York Times 2012, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
ISSN (online)2414-4088

Other styles