How to format your references using the Nano Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
X. Xu, Enhanced trion emission from colloidal quantum dots with photonic crystals by two-photon excitation, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3228.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.J.H. Ryan, B.E. Bernstein, Molecular biology. Genetic events that shape the cancer epigenome, Science. 336 (2012) 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Srinivasan, A.J. Pierik, R. Lill, Crystal structures of nucleotide-free and glutathione-bound mitochondrial ABC transporter Atm1, Science. 343 (2014) 1137–1140.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Boshkovikj, C.J. Fluke, R.J. Crawford, E.P. Ivanova, Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Hewitt, Construction Claims & Responses, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
J.M. Fritz, J. Rhéaume, eds., Community Intervention: Clinical Sociology Perspectives, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
C.D. Pfeiffer, B. Wong, Diagnostic Immunology, in: D.R. Hospenthal, M.G. Rinaldi (Eds.), Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 45–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Energy.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Awesome Timelapse Shows You The Life Cycle Of A Butterfly, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Management Guidelines for Cost Accounting and Cost Control for ADP Systems Design and Development Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Thornsberry, Freshman transition and its effectiveness on student success as measured by improved attendance, improved grades, decreased discipline referrals, and decreased dropout rate, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Tallying the Financial Aftermath: Japan Government Likely To Bear Big Monetary Loss, New York Times. (2011) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Energy
AbbreviationNano Energy
ISSN (print)2211-2855
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science

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