How to format your references using the Nano Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.L. Chalker, Epigenetics: Keeping one’s sex, Nature. 509 (2014) 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Della Valle, R. Gilmozzi, Rebirth of novae as distance indicators due to efficient, large telescopes, Science. 296 (2002) 1275.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Percec, G. Ungar, M. Peterca, Chemistry. Self-assembly in action, Science. 313 (2006) 55–56.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Gerrits, H.A.M. Van Den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, L. Bär, T. Rasing, Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping, Nature. 418 (2002) 509–512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.M. Bragg, The New CEO Corporate Leadership Manual, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
T. Balla, M. Wymann, J.D. York, eds., Phosphoinositides II: The Diverse Biological Functions, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
A.R.F. da Silva, Probabilistic Tractography Using Particle Filtering and Clustered Directional Data, in: A.R. Londral, P. Encarnação (Eds.), Advances in Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics: Revised Selected Papers from the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), October 25-26, Rome, Italy, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Energy.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, China To Get Vertical Gardens In 2018 To Help Tackle Pollution, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Civil Space: NASA’s Strategic Planning Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.V. Steers, Releasing from the inside out: The development of the role of Helene in “Festen,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Pearl Jam, Shakur and Baez to Join Rock Hall of Fame, New York Times. (2016) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Energy
AbbreviationNano Energy
ISSN (print)2211-2855
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science

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