How to format your references using the Nano Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.S. Lackner, Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (III), Science. 301 (2003) 1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.J. Rothschild, R.L. Mancinelli, Life in extreme environments, Nature. 409 (2001) 1092–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.E. DeCoursey, D. Morgan, V.V. Cherny, The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels, Nature. 422 (2003) 531–534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Some, Y. Xu, Y. Kim, Y. Yoon, H. Qin, A. Kulkarni, T. Kim, H. Lee, Highly sensitive and selective gas sensor using hydrophilic and hydrophobic graphenes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Willatzen, L.C. Lew Yan Voon, Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
J. Davies, The Definitive Guide to SOA: BEA AquaLogic® Service Bus, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Carlberg, F. Molnár, Linking Signal Transduction and Gene Regulation, in: F. Molnár (Ed.), Mechanisms of Gene Regulation, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Energy.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Watch Two Rockets Launch, Hover, And Gently Land, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Protest of Air Force Contract Award, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Kreisel, Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, A Title Once Held by Ruth and Berra Now Belongs to . . , New York Times. (2015) B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Energy
AbbreviationNano Energy
ISSN (print)2211-2855
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science

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