How to format your references using the Multimedia Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yavuz, D.D.: Physics. Toward synthesis of arbitrary optical waveforms. Science. 331, 1142–1143 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Gómez, F.J., Waymouth, R.M.: Polymer synthesis. Catalysts rise to the challenge. Science. 295, 635–636 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Krupic, J., Burgess, N., O’Keefe, J.: Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands. Science. 337, 853–857 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fujiwara, T., Bandi, M., Nitta, M., Ivanova, E.V., Bronson, R.T., Pellman, D.: Cytokinesis failure generating tetraploids promotes tumorigenesis in p53-null cells. Nature. 437, 1043–1047 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochstadt, H.: Integral Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (1988)
An edited book
Pokojski, J., Fukuda, S., Salwiński, J. eds: New World Situation: New Directions in Concurrent Engineering: Proceedings of the 17th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering. Springer, London (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Proto, M., Malandrino, O., Supino, S.: The Implementation of Integrated Management System in Agri-Food SMEs. In: Salomone, R., Clasadonte, M.T., Proto, M., and Raggi, A. (eds.) Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS): Improving Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Chain with Innovative Environmental Management Tools. pp. 89–101. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Systems.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Parasitic Mites Pick The Most Nutritious Honeybees,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems, and Child Restraint Anchorage Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, B.: An integrated program for homeless adults with co-occurring mental and subtance use disorders: A grant proposal, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Middle East: Qatar: Death Sought For Russians, (2004)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Systems
AbbreviationMultimed. Syst.
ISSN (print)0942-4962
ISSN (online)1432-1882
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Media Technology

Other styles