How to format your references using the Multimedia Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carr, L.D.: Physics. Negative temperatures? Science. 339, 42–43 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Scher, H.D., Martin, E.E.: Timing and climatic consequences of the opening of Drake Passage. Science. 312, 428–430 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich, T., Allen, R.L., Wyllie, A.H.: Defying death after DNA damage. Nature. 407, 777–783 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pedersen, T.H., Nielsen, O.B., Lamb, G.D., Stephenson, D.G.: Intracellular acidosis enhances the excitability of working muscle. Science. 305, 1144–1147 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst, D.: A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK (2008)
An edited book
Mitchell, G.R., Tojeira, A. eds: Controlling the Morphology of Polymers: Multiple Scales of Structure and Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Z.: Study on the Importance of Cultural Context Analysis in Machine Translation. In: Yin, Z., Pan, L., and Fang, X. (eds.) Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA), 2013. pp. 29–35. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: First Dinosaur Brain Fossil Suggests They May Have Been Smarter Than We Thought,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Internal Control Weaknesses in Army Safeguarding of Computer Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adaligil, E.: Electron transfer through self-assembled monolayers of alkaneselenols and alkanethiols on mercury electrode, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J.: Young Mother Sees Education as a Path to Help Her Daughter, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Systems
AbbreviationMultimed. Syst.
ISSN (print)0942-4962
ISSN (online)1432-1882
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Media Technology

Other styles