How to format your references using the Multimedia Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, E.: BIOTECHNOLOGY:Disease Group Invests in Do-It-Yourself Drugs. Science. 288, 1715b–7b (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Cannon, C.P., Cannon, P.J.: Physiology. COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk. Science. 336, 1386–1387 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Berné, O., Marcelino, N., Cernicharo, J.: Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud. Nature. 466, 947–949 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dai, S., Friemann, R., Glauser, D.A., Bourquin, F., Manieri, W., Schürmann, P., Eklund, H.: Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. Nature. 448, 92–96 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Mahmoud, M.S., Guerber, C., Larrieu, N., Pirovano, A., Radzik, J.: Aeronautical Air-Ground Data Link Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Alpay, D., Kirstein, B. eds: Recent Advances in Inverse Scattering, Schur Analysis and Stochastic Processes: A Collection of Papers Dedicated to Lev Sakhnovich. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Li, G., Hu, Y., Yu, Y.: Popularity Prediction of Tianya BBS Posts Based on User Behavior. In: Batten, L., Li, G., Niu, W., and Warren, M. (eds.) Applications and Techniques in Information Security: 5th International Conference, ATIS 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, November 26-28, 2014. Proceedings. pp. 33–43. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: A Group Of Migrants Broke Into A Truck And Came Face To Face With A Polar Bear,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Criteria Needed for Measuring Technical Assistance Results and Contractor Performance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1971)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelser, C.R.: Interpretation of Aaron Copland’s Duo for Flute and Piano, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J.: Top of the Class, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Systems
AbbreviationMultimed. Syst.
ISSN (print)0942-4962
ISSN (online)1432-1882
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Media Technology

Other styles