How to format your references using the Multimedia Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKeon, B.J.: Applied physics. Controlling turbulence. Science. 327, 1462–1463 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Moënne-Loccoz, P., Fee, J.A.: Biochemistry. Catalyzing NO to N2O in the nitrogen cycle. Science. 330, 1632–1633 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, L., Yang, N., Li, B.: Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. Sci. Rep. 3, 1143 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lydeard, J.R., Jain, S., Yamaguchi, M., Haber, J.E.: Break-induced replication and telomerase-independent telomere maintenance require Pol32. Nature. 448, 820–823 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arendt, J.S., Lorenzo, D.K.: Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2000)
An edited book
Hughes, M.K., Swetnam, T.W., Diaz, H.F. eds: Dendroclimatology: Progress and Prospects. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Bray, M.: Cross-Species Transmission of Poxviruses. In: Fong, I.W. and Alibeck, K. (eds.) New and Evolving Infections of the 21st Century. pp. 129–159. Springer, New York, NY (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Physicists Achieve Quantum Teleportation of Photon Over 25 Kilometers,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Need for Improved Management and Increased Sharing of Computer Resources at the San Antonio Data Services Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1980)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalavacherla, R.S.: DFT study of the improved performance of oxygen reduction reaction on gold-copper alloy in a PEM fuel cell, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M.: Firing Puts Public Split Over Media On Display, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Systems
AbbreviationMultimed. Syst.
ISSN (print)0942-4962
ISSN (online)1432-1882
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Media Technology

Other styles