How to format your references using the Multimedia Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kanamori, H.: Earthquake physics and real-time seismology. Nature. 451, 271–273 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Melbourne, B.A., Hastings, A.: Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity. Nature. 454, 100–103 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gans, J., Wolinsky, M., Dunbar, J.: Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil. Science. 309, 1387–1390 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schoepp-Cothenet, B., Duval, S., Santini, J.M., Nitschke, W.: Comment on “Arsenic (III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California.” Science. 323, 583; author reply 583 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kissell, J.: Mac® Security Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA (2009)
An edited book
Fulekar, M.H., Pathak, B., Kale, R.K. eds: Environment and Sustainable Development. Springer India, New Delhi (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Rao, D., McNamee, P., Dredze, M.: Entity Linking: Finding Extracted Entities in a Knowledge Base. In: Poibeau, T., Saggion, H., Piskorski, J., and Yangarber, R. (eds.) Multi-source, Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization. pp. 93–115. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Systems.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Experiment Fails To Find Dark Matter After 20 Months Of Searching,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Financing: Use of Funds for Capital Improvements at Chicago O’Hare International Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe, M.I.: Tobacco control: A qualitative assessment of the perceptions and practices of nurse practitioners, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Learning to Be a Golightly Girl, (2003)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Systems
AbbreviationMultimed. Syst.
ISSN (print)0942-4962
ISSN (online)1432-1882
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Media Technology

Other styles