How to format your references using the Wetlands citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wetlands. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szoka F (2008) Molecular biology. The art of assembly. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319:578–579.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekkal W, Zaoui A (2013) Nanoscale analysis of the morphology and surface stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs. Scientific reports 3:1587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benham-Pyle BW, Pruitt BL, Nelson WJ (2015) Cell adhesion. Mechanical strain induces E-cadherin-dependent Yap1 and β-catenin activation to drive cell cycle entry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348:1024–1027.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kiernan AE, Pelling AL, Leung KKH, et al (2005) Sox2 is required for sensory organ development in the mammalian inner ear. Nature 434:1031–1035.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villarroel A (2015) Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hamidzadeh HR (2010) Vibrations of Thick Cylindrical Structures. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Bradley RE, Sandifer CE (2009) Determination of continuous functions of a single variable that satisfy certain conditions. In: Sandifer CE (ed) Cauchy’s Cours d’analyse: An Annotated Translation. Springer, New York, NY, pp 71–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wetlands.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Ebola Test can Rapidly Diagnose the Disease in Minutes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Informing Our Nation: Improving How to Understand and Assess the USA’s Position and Progress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dobbs J (2017) The Potential Use of PEI Modified Biochar for Different Environmental Applications. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Szoka 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Szoka 2008; Sekkal and Zaoui 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sekkal and Zaoui 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiernan et al 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWetlands
AbbreviationWetlands (Wilmington)
ISSN (print)0277-5212
ISSN (online)1943-6246
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry

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