How to format your references using the Wetlands citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wetlands. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trewavas A (2002) Malthus foiled again and again. Nature 418:668–670.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klitzman R, Appelbaum PS (2012) Research ethics. To protect human subjects, review what was done, not proposed. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335:1576–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friedmann T, Rabin O, Frankel MS (2010) Ethics. Gene doping and sport. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327:647–648.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Su Z, Li L, Peng H, et al (2014) Robustness of interrelated traffic networks to cascading failures. Scientific reports 4:5413.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brunet R (2013) Sustainable Geography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Thai MT, Pardalos PM (eds) (2012) Handbook of Optimization in Complex Networks: Communication and Social Networks. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Cope B, Cheung PYK, Luk W, Howes L (2011) A Systematic Design Space Exploration Approach to Customising Multi-Processor Architectures: Exemplified Using Graphics Processors. In: Stenström P (ed) Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers IV. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 63–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wetlands.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Is Artificial Intelligence Just Around The Corner? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) General Government Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quashie Z (2017) Issues with Care Provided by Direct Care Workers: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’connor G (2017) All at Sea. New York Times BR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trewavas 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Trewavas 2002; Klitzman and Appelbaum 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klitzman and Appelbaum 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWetlands
AbbreviationWetlands (Wilmington)
ISSN (print)0277-5212
ISSN (online)1943-6246
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry

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