How to format your references using the 3D Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jaeglé, L. (2007). Atmospheric science. Pumping up surface air. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5813), 772–773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adkins, J. F., & Pasquero, C. (2004). Ocean science. Deep ocean overturning--then and now. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5699), 1143–1144.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoon, S.-J., Yi, S. K., & Lee, Y.-W. (2006). Explaining the color distributions of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5764), 1129–1132.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hinterholzinger, F. M., Rühle, B., Wuttke, S., Karaghiosoff, K., & Bein, T. (2013). Highly sensitive and selective fluoride detection in water through fluorophore release from a metal-organic framework. Scientific reports, 3, 2562.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn, A., Behle, B., Lischewski, D., & Rein, W. (2002). Produktionstechnische Praxis. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Skrzypek, J. J., & Rustichelli, F. (Eds.). (2010). Innovative Technological Materials: Structural Properties by Neutron Scattering, Synchrotron Radiation and Modeling. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balbiani, P., & Gencer, Ç. (2015). Admissibility and Unifiability in Contact Logics. In M. Aher, D. Hole, E. Jeřábek, & C. Kupke (Eds.), Logic, Language, and Computation: 10th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2013, Gudauri, Georgia, September 23-27, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–60). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 13). Fossils Reveal Oldest Known Vertebrate Live Birth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Federal Materials Research and Development (No. 094633). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warner, K. S. (2014). The narrative structure of children’s books used in language therapy: An analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2017, March 13). Puerto Rico, Mired in Debt, Approves a Rescue Plan. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D Research
Abbreviation3D Res.
ISSN (online)2092-6731

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