How to format your references using the 3D Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Juma, C. (2011). Preventing hunger: biotechnology is key. Nature, 479(7374), 471–472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski, P. G., & Isozaki, Y. (2008). Geology. The story of O2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5901), 540–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feng, M., Zhao, J., & Petek, H. (2008). Atomlike, hollow-core-bound molecular orbitals of C60. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5874), 359–362.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lane, T. W., Saito, M. A., George, G. N., Pickering, I. J., Prince, R. C., & Morel, F. M. M. (2005). Biochemistry: a cadmium enzyme from a marine diatom. Nature, 435(7038), 42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çayirci, E., & Rong, C. (2009). Security in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, X., Wu, Z., & Sha, X. (Eds.). (2015). Embedded System Technology: 13th National Conference, ESTC 2015, Beijing, China, October 10–11, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 572). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Leaner, J. J., Dabrowski, J. M., Mason, R. P., Resane, T., Richardson, M., Ginster, M., … Murray, K. (2009). Mercury emissions from point sources in South Africa. In R. Mason & N. Pirrone (Eds.), Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements and Models (pp. 113–130). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 14). Curiosity Rover Finds Evidence Of Liquid Water On Mars. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Information Security: Many NASA Missions-Critical Systems Face Serious Risks (No. AIMD-99-47). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ELBoushi, T. C. (2010). Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016, April 24). Brooklyn Gets a Superhero (and a Few Villains). New York Times, p. MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D Research
Abbreviation3D Res.
ISSN (online)2092-6731

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