How to format your references using the 3D Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bizzarro, M. (2014). Planetary science. Probing the solar system’s prenatal history. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6197), 620–621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kopec, C., & Malinow, R. (2006). Neuroscience. Matters of size. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805), 1554–1555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, W., Pellegrini, M., & Wang, X. (2014). Detecting communities based on network topology. Scientific reports, 4, 5739.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435(7042), 673–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin, E., Nel, D., & Ólafsson, S. (2014). Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Moret, S. (2014). Il campione per l’analisi chimica: Tecniche innovative e applicazioni nei settori agroalimentare e ambientale. (G. Purcaro & L. S. Conte, Eds.). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Iwata, H., & Shimada, K. (2013). Sensory Properties of Cosmetics. In K. Shimada (Ed.), Formulas, Ingredients and Production of Cosmetics: Technology of Skin- and Hair-Care Products in Japan (pp. 103–110). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, September 4). Seabirds Feast On Seafood Buffet Thanks To Jellyfish Blooms. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Social Security Administration: Cases of Federal Employees and Transportation Drivers and Owners Who Fraudulently and/or Improperly Received SSA Benefits (No. GAO-10-949T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardiman, B. S. (2012). Resilience of Forest Carbon Storage through Disturbance and Succession (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marshall, L. (2011, October 16). From Granny’s Store to G.M. New York Times, p. BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D Research
Abbreviation3D Res.
ISSN (online)2092-6731

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