How to format your references using the ACS Energy Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACS Energy Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richard, T. L. Challenges in Scaling up Biofuels Infrastructure. Science 2010, 329 (5993), 793–796.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herbst, D.; Mas, A. Peer Effects on Worker Output in the Laboratory Generalize to the Field. Science 2015, 350 (6260), 545–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, B.-S.; Noda, S.; Asano, T. Photonic Devices Based on In-Plane Hetero Photonic Crystals. Science 2003, 300 (5625), 1537.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Flack, J. C.; Girvan, M.; de Waal, F. B. M.; Krakauer, D. C. Policing Stabilizes Construction of Social Niches in Primates. Nature 2006, 439 (7075), 426–429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu, J.; Zhao, X.; Yamada, S. Harmonic Balance Finite Element Method; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
Perioperative Fluid Management; Farag, E., Kurz, A., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Doumit, S.; Minai, A. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments. In Unifying Themes in Complex Systems VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Complex Systems; Minai, A. A., Braha, D., Bar-Yam, Y., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp 44–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACS Energy Letters.

Blog post
Hale, T. This “Temporary Tattoo” Tells You If You Are Too Drunk (accessed 2018 -10 -30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Funding: FAA’s and Industry’s Cost Estimates for Airport Development; GAO-17-504T; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eisenbeiser, C. K. Parents’ Experience of Involvement in the Lives of Community College Students: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. Scouting Report. New York Times. April 21, 2011, p E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleACS Energy Letters
AbbreviationACS Energy Lett.
ISSN (online)2380-8195

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