How to format your references using the Investigational New Drugs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigational New Drugs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ley TJ (2005) Retrospective: Stanley Joel Korsmeyer (1950-2005). Science 308:803–804
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruskov R, Tahan C (2014) Quantum Processing. Catching the quantum sound wave. Science 346:165–166
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogina B, Helfand SL, Frankel S (2002) Longevity regulation by Drosophila Rpd3 deacetylase and caloric restriction. Science 298:1745
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Oria R, Wiegand T, Escribano J, et al (2017) Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells. Nature 552:219–224

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Howe TR (2011) Marriages & Families in the 21st Century. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Nuzzolo A, Wilson NHM (2009) Schedule-Based Modeling of Transportation Networks: Theory and applications. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Massone C, Nunzi E (2012) Pathogenesis. In: Nunzi E, Massone C (eds) Leprosy: A Practical Guide. Springer, Milano, pp 39–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigational New Drugs.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) NASA Believes Newest Telescopes Could Spot Extraterrestrial Life Within 20 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Mass Transit: Review of the Tren Urbano Finance Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al Hashimi H (2017) Local Measurement and Characterization via Fluorescing Materials for Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C (2016) An Unsettling Glimpse Into the Existential Abyss. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigational New Drugs
AbbreviationInvest. New Drugs
ISSN (print)0167-6997
ISSN (online)1573-0646
Pharmacology (medical)

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