How to format your references using the Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Zakon H. Physiology. Heeding the hormonal call. Science. 2004;305:349–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sagan SM, Sarnow P. Molecular biology. RNAi, Antiviral after all. Science. 2013;342:207–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Murray BJ, Knopf DA, Bertram AK. The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth’s atmosphere. Nature. 2005;434:202–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hughen K, Lehman S, Southon J, Overpeck J, Marchal O, Herring C, et al. 14C activity and global carbon cycle changes over the past 50,000 years. Science. 2004;303:202–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Khan MM, Islam MR. Zero Waste Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Adamyan VM, Gohberg I, Kochubei A, Popov G, Berezansky Y, Gorbachuk M, et al., editors. Modern Analysis and Applications: The Mark Krein Centenary Conference Volume 1: Operator Theory and Related Topics. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Majumder M, Barman RN, Jana BK, Roy P, Mazumdar A. Application of Parity Classified Neurogenetic Models to Analyze the Impact of Climatic Uncertainty on Water Footprint. In: Jana BK, Majumder M, editors. Impact of Climate Change on Natural Resource Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 71–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. How Pokemon Go Turned Couch Potatoes Into Fitness Fanatics Without Them Even Realising It [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Serious Shortcomings in FAA’s Training Program Must Be Remedied. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jun. Report No.: T-RCED-90-86.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wang E. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Investigation of the Coyote Mountain Shear Zone [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Back to Brooklyn for a U.S. Eagle. New York Times. 2011 Oct 16;SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
AbbreviationMultidiscip. Respir. Med.
ISSN (online)2049-6958
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles