How to format your references using the Resource-Efficient Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Resource-Efficient Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Rosner, PARTICLE PHYSICS: Enhanced: How Strange Is the Proton?, Science. 290 (2000) 2083–2084.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.V. Olson, A. Varki, Genomics. The chimpanzee genome--a bittersweet celebration, Science. 305 (2004) 191–192.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Wang, J. Chen, R.T. Corlett, Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4786.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Feng, H. Wei, S. Yang, Z. Chen, L. Wang, S. Kong, G. Zhao, X. Liu, Competitive growth mechanisms of AlN on Si (111) by MOVPE, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6416.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Clark, Understanding Diabetes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
J. Doling, Demographic Change and Housing Wealth: Home-owners, Pensions and Asset-based Welfare in Europe, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Maxwell, D. Pigram, Gaudi’s Puffy Jacket: A Method for the Implementation of Fabric Slump Casting in the Construction of Thin-Wall Funicular Vault Structures, in: P. Block, J. Knippers, N.J. Mitra, W. Wang (Eds.), Advances in Architectural Geometry 2014, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Resource-Efficient Technologies.

Blog post
R. Andrews, A Continental-Sized Volcanic Eruption Caused Snowball Earth, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Managed Care: State Approaches on Selected Patient Protections, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.V. Patil, Programming QR code scanner, communicating Android devices, and unit testing in fortified cards, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Out of Character, but in His Element, New York Times. (2013) E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResource-Efficient Technologies
ISSN (print)2405-6537

Other styles