How to format your references using the Resource-Efficient Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Resource-Efficient Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Gomez, Astrophysics: Survival of the largest, Nature. 511 (2014) 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Rakoff-Nahoum, R. Medzhitov, Regulation of spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis through the adaptor protein MyD88, Science. 317 (2007) 124–127.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y.C. Cao, R. Jin, C.A. Mirkin, Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection, Science. 297 (2002) 1536–1540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.-J. Doh, J.A. van Dam, A.L. Roest, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L.P. Kouwenhoven, S. De Franceschi, Tunable supercurrent through semiconductor nanowires, Science. 309 (2005) 272–275.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Lueder, 3D Displays, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
R. Bembenik, Ł. Skonieczny, H. Rybiński, M. Kryszkiewicz, M. Niezgódka, eds., Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform: From Research to Implementation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Baskin, I. Sommers, A. Baskin-Sommers, Methamphetamine Use, Personality Traits, and High-Risk Behaviors, in: B. Sanders, Y.F. Thomas, B. Griffin Deeds (Eds.), Crime, HIV and Health: Intersections of Criminal Justice and Public Health Concerns, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 95–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Resource-Efficient Technologies.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, The Legal Minefield Of 3D Printed Guns, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Implementation of the Display System Replacement Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Kory, Development of an educational seminar for college female athletes, coaches, athletic directors and parents on the female athlete triad, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, French Group Suspends Three Players for Unprofessional Behavior, New York Times. (2016) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResource-Efficient Technologies
ISSN (print)2405-6537

Other styles