How to format your references using the Motivation and Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Motivation and Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ryan, M. J. (2011). Replication in field biology: the case of the frog-eating bat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1229–1230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katzenellenbogen, B. S., & Katzenellenbogen, J. A. (2002). Biomedicine. Defining the “S” in SERMs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2380–2381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hori, S., Nomura, T., & Sakaguchi, S. (2003). Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1057–1061.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, Y. J., Aerne, B. L., Smithers, L., Haddon, C., Ish-Horowicz, D., & Lewis, J. (2000). Notch signalling and the synchronization of the somite segmentation clock. Nature, 408(6811), 475–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanoyevitch, A. (2004). Introduction to Numerical Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Laveault, D., & Allal, L. (Eds.). (2016). Assessment for Learning: Meeting the Challenge of Implementation (Vol. 4). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Atkinson, K., & Han, W. (2012). Numerical Quadrature. In W. Han (Ed.), Spherical Harmonics and Approximations on the Unit Sphere: An Introduction (pp. 165–210). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Motivation and Emotion.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 20). The Two-Spot Octopus Can See Without Eyes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Financial Markets: Information on Computer Data Used for Stock Market Crash Studies (No. IMTEC-88-57). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, R. J. (2016). Exploring the effects of parasocial connection on relaxation exercise persistence in women (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davis, J. H. (2017, May 10). A Complex Relationship Has an Abrupt Ending. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ryan 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Katzenellenbogen and Katzenellenbogen 2002; Ryan 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Katzenellenbogen and Katzenellenbogen 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMotivation and Emotion
AbbreviationMotiv. Emot.
ISSN (print)0146-7239
ISSN (online)1573-6644
ScopeExperimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology

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