How to format your references using the Motivation and Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Motivation and Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arrigo, K. R. (2005). Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles. Nature, 437(7057), 349–355.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, C. P., & Reddien, P. W. (2011). Polarized notum activation at wounds inhibits Wnt function to promote planarian head regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6031), 852–855.
A journal article with 3 authors
Szemenyei, H., Hannon, M., & Long, J. A. (2008). TOPLESS mediates auxin-dependent transcriptional repression during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5868), 1384–1386.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ferrer, M., Golyshina, O. V., Beloqui, A., Golyshin, P. N., & Timmis, K. N. (2007). The cellular machinery of Ferroplasma acidiphilum is iron-protein-dominated. Nature, 445(7123), 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale, J., & Len, I. H. (2008). Zero Limits. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mastorakis, N., & Mladenov, V. (Eds.). (2014). Computational Problems in Engineering (Vol. 307). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Abel, A., Coquand, T., & Dybjer, P. (2008). Verifying a Semantic βη-Conversion Test for Martin-Löf Type Theory. In P. Audebaud & C. Paulin-Mohring (Eds.), Mathematics of Program Construction: 9th International Conference, MPC 2008, Marseille, France, July 15-18, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 29–56). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Motivation and Emotion.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 24). Watch A Snowflake Form Before Your Eyes! IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Amtrak Management: Systemic Problems Require Actions to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability (No. GAO-06-145). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bankas, J. K. (2014). CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, January 3). Vacation Ending, Clinton Plans to Fill More Jobs. New York Times, p. 119.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arrigo 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Arrigo 2005; Petersen and Reddien 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petersen and Reddien 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferrer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMotivation and Emotion
AbbreviationMotiv. Emot.
ISSN (print)0146-7239
ISSN (online)1573-6644
ScopeExperimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology

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