How to format your references using the Motivation and Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Motivation and Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scott, W. G. (2014). Structural biology: How fluorescent RNA gets its glow. Nature, 513(7516), 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2007). Prospection: experiencing the future. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5843), 1351–1354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chisari, F. V., Mason, W. S., & Seeger, C. (2014). Virology. Comment on “Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6189), 1237.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gibbs, S. J., Bown, P. R., Sessa, J. A., Bralower, T. J., & Wilson, P. A. (2006). Nannoplankton extinction and origination across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5806), 1770–1773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannon, C. M. (2011). An Executive’s Guide to Fundraising Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cai, Z., Li, Z., Kang, Z., & Liu, Y. (Eds.). (2009). Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Systems: 4th International Symposium, ISICA 2009, Huangshi, China, October 23-25, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 51). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Szyszczak, E. (2011). Patients’ Rights: A Lost Cause or Missed Opportunity? In J. W. van de Gronden, E. Szyszczak, U. Neergaard, & M. Krajewski (Eds.), Health Care and EU Law (pp. 103–131). The Hague, The Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Motivation and Emotion.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, July 25). New Metal Alloy Four Times Stronger Than Titanium Could Revolutionize Prosthetics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). U.S.-Korea Fighter Coproduction Program (No. T-NSIAD-90-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ravilla, S. (2013). Correlation between diabetes and periodontitis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2017, May 5). 24 Years Later, DNA Leads To Arrest in Attack on Girl. New York Times, p. A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scott 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gilbert and Wilson 2007; Scott 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gilbert and Wilson 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gibbs et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMotivation and Emotion
AbbreviationMotiv. Emot.
ISSN (print)0146-7239
ISSN (online)1573-6644
ScopeExperimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology

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