How to format your references using the Motivation and Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Motivation and Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2010). World view: ERA of austerity. Nature, 466(7304), 314.
A journal article with 2 authors
Navarro, M., & Gull, K. (2001). A pol I transcriptional body associated with VSG mono-allelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei. Nature, 414(6865), 759–763.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attardo, A., Fitzgerald, J. E., & Schnitzer, M. J. (2015). Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus. Nature, 523(7562), 592–596.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, Q., Karata, K., Woodgate, R., Cox, M. M., & Goodman, M. F. (2009). The active form of DNA polymerase V is UmuD’(2)C-RecA-ATP. Nature, 460(7253), 359–363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shaw, M. T. (2011). Introduction to Polymer Rheology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhang, L., & Chan, M. (Eds.). (2016). Tunneling Field Effect Transistor Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Silanikove, N. (2008). Milk Lipoprotein Membranes and Their Imperative Enzymes. In Z. Bösze (Ed.), Bioactive Components of Milk (pp. 143–161). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Motivation and Emotion.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 5). Astronomers Spot Planet Forming. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Railroad Regulation: Competitive Access and Its Effects on Selected Railroads and Shippers (No. RCED-87-109). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzaga Reed, R. R. (2017). The Impact of a Community-Based College Access Program at a Midwestern Institution (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, November 3). Momentum for Tax Reform, Thanks to Trump’s Tactics. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2010; Navarro and Gull 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Navarro and Gull 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMotivation and Emotion
AbbreviationMotiv. Emot.
ISSN (print)0146-7239
ISSN (online)1573-6644
ScopeExperimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology

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