How to format your references using the Motivation and Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Motivation and Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunten, D. M. (2004). Atmospheric science. An iron deficiency in polar mesospheric clouds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5669), 395–396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mervis, J., & Holden, C. (2004). Great expectations on the job front. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1829.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, M. A., Plotkin, J. B., & Jansen, V. A. (2000). The evolution of syntactic communication. Nature, 404(6777), 495–498.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, S., Xu, J., Wang, W., Wang, G.-J. N., Rastak, R., Molina-Lopez, F., et al. (2018). Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 555(7694), 83–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henden, J. (2011). Beating Combat Stress. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sergienko, I. V. (2014). Optimization Models in a Transition Economy. (M. Mikhalevich & L. Koshlai, Eds.) (Vol. 101). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Marinč, M., & Vlahu, R. (2012). General Issues on the Structure of Banking Industry. In R. Vlahu (Ed.), The Economics of Bank Bankruptcy Law (pp. 85–96). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Motivation and Emotion.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, September 23). Europa, Musk, Rosetta: Get Ready For An Amazing Week Of Space News. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Review of Selected Contracts Awarded by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (No. PSAD-79-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hao, S. (2013). An Introduction to Discrete Minimal Surfaces via the Enneper Surface (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brownell, K. D., & Nestle, M. (2004, January 23). The Sweet And Lowdown On Sugar. New York Times, p. A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hunten 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hunten 2004; Mervis and Holden 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mervis and Holden 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMotivation and Emotion
AbbreviationMotiv. Emot.
ISSN (print)0146-7239
ISSN (online)1573-6644
ScopeExperimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology

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