How to format your references using the Canadian Geotechnical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Geotechnical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Apkarian, V.A. 2006. Chemistry. A pixellated window on chemistry in solids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5794): 1747–1748.
A journal article with 2 authors
Price, D.J., and Rosswog, S. 2006. Producing ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron star mergers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5774): 719–722.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaedler, T.A., Jacobsen, A.J., and Carter, W.B. 2013. Materials science. Toward lighter, stiffer materials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6151): 1181–1182.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y., He, H., Li, S., Liu, D., Lan, B., Hu, M., Cao, Y., and Wang, C. 2014. All-optical regulation of gene expression in targeted cells. Scientific reports, 4: 5346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kurrer, K.-E. 2016. Geschichte der Baustatik. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Crowder, J.A. 2016. Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering: Architecting the Design Process. In 1st ed. 2016. Edited by J.N. Carbone and R. Demijohn. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lessin, S.R., Perlis, C.S., and Zook, M.B. 2012. How Ultraviolet Radiation Tans Skin. In Shedding Light on Indoor Tanning. Edited by C.J. Heckman and S.L. Manne. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 87–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. Humans Are Still Evolving But In Ways That Might Surprise You. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. DOD’s Full-Time, Fully Funded Graduate and Undergraduate Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trump, R.K. 2010. Self -brand overlap and dissociation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B. 2015. Detroit’s Chief Instigator. New York Times,: BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Apkarian 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Price and Rosswog 2006, Apkarian 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Price and Rosswog 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Geotechnical Journal
AbbreviationCan. Geotech. J.
ISSN (print)0008-3674
ISSN (online)1208-6010
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles