How to format your references using the Canadian Geotechnical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Geotechnical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inan, U. 2005. Atmospheric science. Gamma rays made on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5712): 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli, R., and Covacci, A. 2003. Reverse vaccinology and genomics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5645): 602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kane Dickson, V., Pedi, L., and Long, S.B. 2014. Structure and insights into the function of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. Nature, 516(7530): 213–218.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Imai, T., Ishida, H., Suzue, K., Hirai, M., Taniguchi, T., Okada, H., Suzuki, T., Shimokawa, C., and Hisaeda, H. 2013. CD8(+) T cell activation by murine erythroblasts infected with malaria parasites. Scientific reports, 3: 1572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Green, S.D. 2011. Making Sense of Construction Improvement. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Boffeli, T.J. (Editor). 2015. Osteomyelitis of the Foot and Ankle: Medical and Surgical Management. In 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Miranda, L.S., Morandini, A.C., and Marques, A.C. 2012. Do Staurozoa bloom? A review of stauromedusan population biology. In Jellyfish Blooms IV: Interactions with humans and fisheries. Edited by J. Purcell, H. Mianzan, and J.R. Frost. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016. Do Animals Use Drugs In The Wild? IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Office of Telecommunications Policy’s Contract for a Publication on Intercepting Electronic Communications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna, D. 2014. Preventing obesity among foster youth through nutrition and outdoor activities: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017. Pentatonix Album Tops Billboard’s Chart Again. New York Times,: C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Inan 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Rappuoli and Covacci 2003, Inan 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rappuoli and Covacci 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Imai et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Geotechnical Journal
AbbreviationCan. Geotech. J.
ISSN (print)0008-3674
ISSN (online)1208-6010
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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