How to format your references using the Canadian Geotechnical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Geotechnical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. 2005. Internet star shoots for a rocket revolution. Nature, 438(7069): 736–737.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elliott, J.E., and Elliott, K.H. 2013. Environmental science. Tracking marine pollution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132): 556–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roberts, L., Stone, R., and Sugden, A. 2009. The rise of restoration ecology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940): 555.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Greene, E., Lyon, B.E., Muehter, V.R., Ratcliffe, L., Oliver, S.J., and Boag, P.T. 2000. Disruptive sexual selection for plumage coloration in a passerine bird. Nature, 407(6807): 1000–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krabbes, G., Fuchs, G., Canders, W.-R., May, H., and Palka, R. 2006. High Temperature Superconductor Bulk Materials. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Alvarez-Venegas, R. 2014. Epigenetics in Plants of Agronomic Importance: Fundamentals and Applications: Transcriptional Regulation and Chromatin Remodelling in Plants. Edited ByC. De la Peña and J.A. Casas-Mollano. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hennessy, D.A., and Wang, T. 2012. Animal Disease and the Industrialization of Agriculture. In Health and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries. Edited by D. Zilberman, J. Otte, D. Roland-Holst, and D. Pfeiffer. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2017, January 24. Actual Fukushima Radiation Levels May Have Been Four Times Lower Than Official Estimates. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Higher Education: Institutions’ Reported Data Collection Burden Is Higher Than Estimated but Can Be Reduced through Increased Coordination. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stockman, S.B. 2015. Daughters of Yahweh: Recovering the deep feminine from the Yahweh complex. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eldred, S.M., and Eligon, J. 2016, May 11. Doctor Saw Prince a Day Before His Death. New York Times,: A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt 2005, Elliott and Elliott 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elliott and Elliott 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Greene et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Geotechnical Journal
AbbreviationCan. Geotech. J.
ISSN (print)0008-3674
ISSN (online)1208-6010
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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