How to format your references using the Canadian Geotechnical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Geotechnical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rando, T.A. 2006. Stem cells, ageing and the quest for immortality. Nature, 441(7097): 1080–1086.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abramson, J., and Vartanian, A.S. 2013. Biochemistry. Watch water flow. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6138): 1294–1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrew, T.L., Tsai, H.-Y., and Menon, R. 2009. Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929): 917–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Abo-Shaeer, J.R., Raman, C., Vogels, J.M., and Ketterle, W. 2001. Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5516): 476–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Häussler-Combe, U. 2014. Computational Methods for Reinforced Concrete Structures. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Borrajo, D., Castillo, L., and Corchado, J.M. (Editors). 2007. Current Topics in Artificial Intelligence: 12th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2007, Salamanca, Spain, November 12-16, 2007. Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Barbierato, E., Gribaudo, M., and Manini, D. 2016. Fluid Approximation of Pool Depletion Systems. In Analytical and Stochastic Modelling Techniques and Applications: 23rd International Conference, ASMTA 2016, Cardiff, UK, August 24-26, 2016, Proceedings. Edited by S. Wittevrongel and T. Phung-Duc. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 60–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016. Curiosity Can Now Zap Rocks On Mars By Itself. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Telephone Communications: Issues Affecting Rural Telephone Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, S. 2016. Data-driven computer vision for science and the humanities. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2011. Animal-Free and Sermon-Free. New York Times,: NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rando 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Rando 2006, Abramson and Vartanian 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abramson and Vartanian 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Abo-Shaeer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Geotechnical Journal
AbbreviationCan. Geotech. J.
ISSN (print)0008-3674
ISSN (online)1208-6010
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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