How to format your references using the Canadian Geotechnical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Geotechnical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeman, P. 2004. Comment on “Diverse psychotomimetics act through a common signaling pathway.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5681): 180; author reply 180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinson, V., and Pennisi, E. 2011. Synthetic biology. The allure of synthetic biology. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6047): 1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kildishev, A.V., Boltasseva, A., and Shalaev, V.M. 2013. Planar photonics with metasurfaces. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6125): 1232009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huigens, M.E., Luck, R.F., Klaassen, R.H., Maas, M.F., Timmermans, M.J., and Stouthamer, R. 2000. Infectious parthenogenesis. Nature, 405(6783): 178–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wahbi, M. 2013. Algorithms and Ordering Heuristics for Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Baert, A.L. (Editor). 2008. Encyclopedia of Diagnostic Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivera-Rubio, J., Idrees, S., Alexiou, I., Hadjilucas, L., and Bharath, A.A. 2013. Mobile Visual Assistive Apps: Benchmarks of Vision Algorithm Performance. In New Trends in Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2013: ICIAP 2013 International Workshops, Naples, Italy, September 9-13, 2013. Proceedings. Edited by A. Petrosino, L. Maddalena, and P. Pala. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 30–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016, June 15. You Can Watch A Blue Origin Rocket Launch Live For The First Time This Friday. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. The Need for a Better Trained EDP Auditor. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becknell, J.M. 2013. Listening to narratives of war. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2006, August 22. In Moscow, A Museum Shows Off Its Stars. New York Times,: E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Salo 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Levasseur-Regourd 2004, Smaglik 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vinson and Pennisi 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ramachandran et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Geotechnical Journal
AbbreviationCan. Geotech. J.
ISSN (print)0008-3674
ISSN (online)1208-6010
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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