How to format your references using the MorphoMuseuM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MorphoMuseuM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feldheim, D. L. 2007. Chemistry. The new face of catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316:699–700.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humphries, M. J., and A. P. Mould. 2001. Structure. An anthropomorphic integrin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294:316–317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soukoulis, C. M., S. Linden, and M. Wegener. 2007. Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315:47–49.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gandha, K., K. Elkins, N. Poudyal, X. Liu, and J. P. Liu. 2014. High energy product developed from cobalt nanowires. Scientific Reports, 4:5345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duggan, D. 2012. Enterprise Software Architecture and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
2005. Discrete Geometry for Computer Imagery: 12th International Conference, DGCI 2005, Poitiers, France, April 13-15, 2005. Proceedings (E. Andres, G. Damiand, and P. Lienhardt (eds.)). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 430 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Toepfer, G. 2016. The Concept of Life in Synthetic Biology; p. 71–88. In M. Engelhard (ed.), Synthetic Biology Analysed: Tools for Discussion and Evaluation., . Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MorphoMuseuM.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. This Cyclops Shark Was Found Three Years Ago Off The Coast Of Mexico. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Airport Financing: Compliance With Federal Grant Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, K. C. 2017. CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. 2016. Patriots Feast on Petty, as on So Many Others. New York Times, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feldheim, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Humphries and Mould, 2001; Feldheim, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Humphries and Mould, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gandha et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphoMuseuM
ISSN (online)2274-0422

Other styles