How to format your references using the MorphoMuseuM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MorphoMuseuM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nichols, D. 2011. Legal highs: the dark side of medicinal chemistry. Nature, 469:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parkes, D. C., and M. P. Wellman. 2015. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349:267–272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, L. M., R. M. Friedman, and A. W. Roe. 2003. Optical imaging of a tactile illusion in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302:881–885.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, J., M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber. 2001. Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293:1455–1457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaitly, R. 2016. Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, p.
An edited book
2008. Mild Stress and Healthy Aging: Applying Hormesis in Aging Research and Interventions (E. L. Bourg and S. I. S. Rattan (eds.)). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, VIII, 188 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kang, Y. 2016. Bilateral FDI Relations Between China and New Zealand: General Trends, Driving Forces and Perceptions; p. 141–168. In Y. Kang (ed.), China, New Zealand, and the Complexities of Globalization: Asymmetry, Complementarity, and Competition. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MorphoMuseuM.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2015. Stephen Hawking Warns Us About Artificial Intelligence. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Limited English Proficiency: A Growing and Costly Educational Challenge Facing Many School Districts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, R. 2015. Aging well adult day care center. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2008. Court to Hear Challenge From Muslims Held After 9/11. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nichols, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Nichols, 2011; Parkes and Wellman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parkes and Wellman, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphoMuseuM
ISSN (online)2274-0422

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