How to format your references using the MorphoMuseuM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MorphoMuseuM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
French, C. 2010. Archaeology. People, societies, and landscapes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328:443–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Venkatesan, A. K., and R. U. Halden. 2014. Wastewater treatment plants as chemical observatories to forecast ecological and human health risks of manmade chemicals. Scientific Reports, 4:3731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Topper, T. P., L. E. Holmer, and J.-B. Caron. 2014. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Scientific Reports, 4:6704.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ettwig, K. F., M. K. Butler, D. Le Paslier, E. Pelletier, S. Mangenot, M. M. M. Kuypers, F. Schreiber, B. E. Dutilh, J. Zedelius, D. de Beer, J. Gloerich, H. J. C. T. Wessels, T. van Alen, F. Luesken, M. L. Wu, K. T. van de Pas-Schoonen, H. J. M. Op den Camp, E. M. Janssen-Megens, K.-J. Francoijs, H. Stunnenberg, J. Weissenbach, M. S. M. Jetten, and M. Strous. 2010. Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria. Nature, 464:543–548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahinoglu, M. 2016. Cyber-Risk Informatics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
d’Avila Garcez, A. S. 2009. Neural-Symbolic Cognitive Reasoning (L. C. Lamb and D. M. Gabbay (eds.)). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIV, 198 p. 53 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ali, M. A. M., and M. A. Maarof. 2013. A Novel Malware Detection Framework Based on Innate Immunity and Danger Theory; p. 29–34. In K. J. Kim and K.-Y. Chung (eds.), IT Convergence and Security 2012., . Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MorphoMuseuM.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. This 3D Map Of 1.2 Million Galaxies Could Unlock The Secrets of Dark Energy. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Air Force Assessment of the Joint Strike Fighter’s Aerial Refueling Method. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oparnica, D. 2013. The role of nurses in health care reform: A project report. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. 2017. August Wilson Has a Biographer. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (French, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (French, 2010; Venkatesan and Halden, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Venkatesan and Halden, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ettwig et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphoMuseuM
ISSN (online)2274-0422

Other styles