How to format your references using the MorphoMuseuM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MorphoMuseuM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zarin, D. J. 2012. Atmospheric science. Carbon from tropical deforestation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336:1518–1519.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwander, T., and L. Keller. 2008. Genetic compatibility affects queen and worker caste determination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322:552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reynolds, J. N., B. I. Hyland, and J. R. Wickens. 2001. A cellular mechanism of reward-related learning. Nature, 413:67–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kulkarni, S., R. Savan, Y. Qi, X. Gao, Y. Yuki, S. E. Bass, M. P. Martin, P. Hunt, S. G. Deeks, A. Telenti, F. Pereyra, D. Goldstein, S. Wolinsky, B. Walker, H. A. Young, and M. Carrington. 2011. Differential microRNA regulation of HLA-C expression and its association with HIV control. Nature, 472:495–498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Remy, J.-G., and C. Letamendia. 2014. LTE Services. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
2008. Educating in the Arts: The Asian Experience: Twenty-Four Essays (L. Joubert (ed.)). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XXII, 358 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
López Mazz, J. M. 2015. Archaeology of Historical Conflicts, Colonial Oppression, and Political Violence in Uruguay; p. 71–87. In A. González-Ruibal and G. Moshenska (eds.), Ethics and the Archaeology of Violence. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MorphoMuseuM.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2017. Understanding Genetic Differences Between Breast Cancer Tumors Is Key To Better Treatment. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Fiscal Year 2013 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot, A. R. 2012. Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2016. An Intergalactic Odyssey via Puppets, Puns and Knock-Knock Jokes. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zarin, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Schwander and Keller, 2008; Zarin, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwander and Keller, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kulkarni et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphoMuseuM
ISSN (online)2274-0422

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