How to format your references using the MorphoMuseuM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MorphoMuseuM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gizis, J. E. 2001. Astronomy. Brown dwarfs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294:801–802.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovannoni, S. J., and U. Stingl. 2005. Molecular diversity and ecology of microbial plankton. Nature, 437:343–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, F., R. Martienssen, and W. Z. Cande. 2011. Coordination of DNA replication and histone modification by the Rik1-Dos2 complex. Nature, 475:244–248.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pan, C.-T., J. A. Hinks, Q. M. Ramasse, G. Greaves, U. Bangert, S. E. Donnelly, and S. J. Haigh. 2014. In-situ observation and atomic resolution imaging of the ion irradiation induced amorphisation of graphene. Scientific Reports, 4:6334.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Datta, T. K. 2010. Seismic Analysis of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, p.
An edited book
2014. Science Teacher Educators as K-12 Teachers: Practicing What We Teach (M. Dias, C. J. Eick, and L. Brantley-Dias (eds.)). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, IX, 322 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Liberty, J., P. Japikse, and J. Galloway. 2014. Views; p. 99–129. In P. Japikse and J. Galloway (eds.), Pro Windows 8.1 Development with XAML and C#. Apress, Berkeley, CA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MorphoMuseuM.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Hair from Ancient Mummies Reveals Peruvian Paleodiets. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Smartphone Data: Information and Issues Regarding Surreptitious Tracking Apps That Can Facilitate Stalking. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, E. D. 2015. A mental health community outreach and education program for Nigerian immigrants: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jacoby, S. 2013. Keep the Gates of Paradise Open. New York Times, SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gizis, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gizis, 2001; Giovannoni and Stingl, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giovannoni and Stingl, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Pan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphoMuseuM
ISSN (online)2274-0422

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