How to format your references using the MorphoMuseuM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MorphoMuseuM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lea, D. W. 2001. Paleoclimate. Ice ages, the California Current, and Devils Hole. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293:59–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belkhadir, Y., and J. Chory. 2006. Brassinosteroid signaling: a paradigm for steroid hormone signaling from the cell surface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314:1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fried, S. D., S. Bagchi, and S. G. Boxer. 2014. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346:1510–1514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moreira-Leite, F. F., T. Sherwin, L. Kohl, and K. Gull. 2001. A trypanosome structure involved in transmitting cytoplasmic information during cell division. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294:610–612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, F. M., A. Nathan, Y. Wu, and B. S. Ong. 2011. Organic Thin Film Transistor Integration. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, p.
An edited book
Kanekawa, N. 2011. Dependability in Electronic Systems: Mitigation of Hardware Failures, Soft Errors, and Electro-Magnetic Disturbances (E. H. Ibe, T. Suga, and Y. Uematsu (eds.)). Springer, New York, NY, XXV, 204 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Newhouse, P. 2013. Applied Information Technology; p. 49–98. In P. J. Williams and C. P. Newhouse (eds.), Digital Representations of Student Performance for Assessment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MorphoMuseuM.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. New Photo Shows The Dark Side Of Pluto. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. New Chicago-Area Airport: Site Comparison, Selection Process, and Federal Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, H. L. 2009. Normalizing happiness: The rhetoric of depression in Direct -to -Consumer advertising. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hyduk, J. 2016. Looking Back (Sigh) at the End (Sigh) of a Great Season (Sigh). New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lea, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lea, 2001; Belkhadir and Chory, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belkhadir and Chory, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Moreira-Leite et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphoMuseuM
ISSN (online)2274-0422

Other styles