How to format your references using the Morphologie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphologie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moskovits M. Applied physics. Hot electrons cross boundaries. Science 2011;332:676–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abraham RT, Tibbetts RS. Cell biology. Guiding ATM to broken DNA. Science 2005;308:510–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansell DA, Kadko D, Bates NR. Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science 2004;304:858–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jiménez Farías O, Lombard Latune C, Walborn SP, Davidovich L, Souto Ribeiro PH. Determining the dynamics of entanglement. Science 2009;324:1414–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Poikselkä M, Mayer G, Khartabil H, Niemi A. The IMS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Zobel CW, Altay N, Haselkorn MP, editors. Advances in Managing Humanitarian Operations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Herrera F, Lozano M. Fuzzy Evolutionary Algorithms and Genetic Fuzzy Systems: A Positive Collaboration between Evolutionary Algorithms and Fuzzy Systems. In: Mumford CL, Jain LC, editors. Computational Intelligence: Collaboration, Fusion and Emergence, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 83–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphologie.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lunar Dynamo May Have Generated The Moon’s Ancient Magnetic Field. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Relationship of Contractor and Grantee ADP Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White J. Support group for family caregivers of Alzheimer’s patients: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling MK. Simply Grand. New York Times 2016:M2218.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphologie
ISSN (print)1286-0115

Other styles