How to format your references using the Morphologie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphologie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. Parasitology: Triple genome triumph. Nature 2005;436:337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouziat R, Jabri B. IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the gut-vascular barrier. Science 2015;350:742–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkelstein IJ, Visnapuu M-L, Greene EC. Single-molecule imaging reveals mechanisms of protein disruption by a DNA translocase. Nature 2010;468:983–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shiozawa H, Bachmatiuk A, Stangl A, Cox DC, Silva SRP, Rümmeli MH, et al. Microscopic insight into the bilateral formation of carbon spirals from a symmetric iron core. Sci Rep 2013;3:1840.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisswanger H. Enzymkinetik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Fahrenberg U, Tripakis S, editors. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems: 9th International Conference, FORMATS 2011, Aalborg, Denmark, September 21-23, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 6919. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonnin D, Travers C. α-Register. In: Baldoni R, Nisse N, Steen M van, editors. Principles of Distributed Systems: 17th International Conference, OPODIS 2013, Nice, France, December 16-18, 2013. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013, p. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphologie.

Blog post
Fang J. New Exomoon Detection Technique. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Enforcement Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez K. Personal narrative: The struggles and limitations of immigration experienced by an El Salvadorian refugee. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liptak A, Wines M. Justices Thwart Strict Voter ID Law That Unevenly Hurt Blacks. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphologie
ISSN (print)1286-0115

Other styles