How to format your references using the Journal of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Krause RM. Obituary: Maclyn McCarty (1911-2005). Nature 2005; 433: 372.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pelkmans L, Zerial M. Kinase-regulated quantal assemblies and kiss-and-run recycling of caveolae. Nature 2005; 436: 128–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fried SD, Bagchi S, Boxer SG. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase. Science 2014; 346: 1510–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Greenwood RC, Franchi IA, Jambon A, Buchanan PC. Widespread magma oceans on asteroidal bodies in the early Solar System. Nature 2005; 435: 916–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Clarke A, Thompson A, Jenkinson E, Rumsey N, Newell R. CBT for Appearance Anxiety. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
An edited book
1. Bosch X, Ramos-Casals M, Khamashta MA eds. Drugs Targeting B-Cells in Autoimmune Diseases. Basel: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cullinane K, Cullinane S, Wang T. A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Container Ports in China and the Implications for Their Development. In: Lee PT-W, Cullinane K, eds. Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 1: Applying Theory to Practice in Maritime Logistics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, 79–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Watch The Moment A Herd Of Bison Are Returned To Canada’s Oldest National Park. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Bureau of the Census Must Solve ADP Acquisition and Security Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dhah S. The relationship between job-embedded professional development and special education teacher self-efficacy in hard-to-staff middle schools. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hu W, Remnick N. City Requires Tower Checks; Outbreak Toll Climbs to 10. New York Times. August 7, 2015:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6820
ISSN (online)1365-2796
ScopeInternal Medicine

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