How to format your references using the Journal of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Friedman WE. Hydatellaceae are water lilies with gymnospermous tendencies. Nature 2008; 453: 94–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Vincent ACJ, Harris JM. Marine Science. Boundless no more. Science 2014; 346: 420–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chabre M, Cone R, Saibil H. Biophysics: is rhodopsin dimeric in native retinal rods? Nature 2003; 426: 30–1; discussion 31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ren M, Shang C, Zhong X, et al. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 7586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lalanne C. Random Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
1. Zabel H, Farle M eds. Magnetic Nanostructures: Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kolell A, Ginige JA. Workflow Management Issues in Virtual Enterprise Networks. In: Filipe J, Cordeiro J, eds. Enterprise Information Systems: 12th International Conference, ICEIS 2010, Funchal-Madeira, Portugal, June 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, 48–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Young Blood Recharges Brains of Old Mice. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Food Assistance: Processing of USDA Commodities Donated to the National School Lunch Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Waidelich LA. Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B, Fisher I. President Puts Saudis at Core Of Peace Effort. New York Times. May 23, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6820
ISSN (online)1365-2796
ScopeInternal Medicine

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