How to format your references using the Journal of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wine JJ. Medicine. Letting go of mucus. Science 2014; 345: 730–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bagnall MW, McLean DL. Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish. Science 2014; 343: 197–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rodríguez-Muñoz R, Ojanguren AF, Tregenza T. Comment on “International conservation policy delivers benefits for birds in Europe.” Science 2008; 319: 1042; author reply 1042.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Giorgi C, Ito K, Lin H-K, et al. PML regulates apoptosis at endoplasmic reticulum by modulating calcium release. Science 2010; 330: 1247–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Narang RK. Inside the Black Box. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
1. Balliauw M. Pro NuGet. (Decoster X, ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rogowska J, Namieśnik J. Environmental Implications of Oil Spills from Shipping Accidents. In: Whitacre DM, ed. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 206. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, 95–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Black-Hole-Scope Could Reveal the Mystery of how Cosmic Jets Form. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities in, and Alternatives for, Preboard Screening Security Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kilpatrick RF. A World Less Paved. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Branch J. Turning His Back on Football. New York Times. August 30, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6820
ISSN (online)1365-2796
ScopeInternal Medicine

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