How to format your references using the Journal of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wickelgren I. Neuroscience. Monkey see, monkey think about doing. Science 2004; 305: 162–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang TT, Palese P. Biochemistry. Catching a moving target. Science 2011; 333: 834–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Prakash M, Quéré D, Bush JWM. Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: the capillary ratchet. Science 2008; 320: 931–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lewis S, Sherratt TN, Hamer KC, Wanless S. Evidence of intra-specific competition for food in a pelagic seabird. Nature 2001; 412: 816–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cooper JD. Soil Water Measurement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
1. Zsidisin GA, Ritchie B eds. Supply Chain Risk: A Handbook of Assessment, Management, and Performance. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nasu H. Alfred Schutz and a Hermeneutical Sociology of Knowledge. In: Staudigl M, Berguno G, eds. Schutzian Phenomenology and Hermeneutic Traditions. Contributions to Phenomenology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. New Treatment Shown To Dramatically Boost Survival Rates In Prostate Cancer Patients. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Issues Related to the Structure and Funding of Public Television. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Francis TM. The Lived Experience of Caribbean Women and Their Experiences as Senior-Level Leaders: A Phenomenological Study. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Elliott Hedge Fund Tries to Beat Buffett’s Offer for Utility Operator. New York Times. July 10, 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0954-6820
ISSN (online)1365-2796
ScopeInternal Medicine

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