How to format your references using the Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fusi S. Neuroscience. A quiescent working memory. Science. 2008;319(5869):1495-1496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang F, Zhou Z. Palaeontology: leg feathers in an Early Cretaceous bird. Nature. 2004;431(7011):925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai Y, Zhang G, Zhang YW. Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6677.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lyall J, Irvine RM, Sherman A, et al. Suppression of avian influenza transmission in genetically modified chickens. Science. 2011;331(6014):223-226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst D. A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Agarwal R, Selen W, Roos G, Green R, eds. The Handbook of Service Innovation. Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lucchetti R. Godfrey H. Hardy. In: Bartocci C, Betti R, Guerraggio A, Lucchetti R, eds. Mathematical Lives: Protagonists of the Twentieth Century From Hilbert to Wiles. Springer; 2011:37-41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica.

Blog post
Hamilton K. NASA To Study Identical Twins—One On Earth, The Other In Space. IFLScience. Published March 28, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on Prime Sponsor CETA Expenditures Related to Membership Organizations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen CY. The Analysis of Communication Problems and Language Barriers between Patients and Physicians in California. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Some Inheritances Aren’t Prized. New York Times. September 17, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
AbbreviationActa Orthop. Traumatol. Turc.
ISSN (print)1017-995X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles