How to format your references using the Molecules citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecules. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roses, A.D. Pharmacogenetics and the Practice of Medicine. Nature 2000, 405, 857–865.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lindvall, O.; Hyun, I. Medical Innovation versus Stem Cell Tourism. Science 2009, 324, 1664–1665.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daigaku, Y.; Davies, A.A.; Ulrich, H.D. Ubiquitin-Dependent DNA Damage Bypass Is Separable from Genome Replication. Nature 2010, 465, 951–955.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, B.; Bhatt, D.; Oltvai, Z.N.; Greenberger, J.S.; Bahar, I. Significance of P53 Dynamics in Regulating Apoptosis in Response to Ionizing Radiation, and Polypharmacological Strategies. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chapman, R.J. Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118467206.
An edited book
Structure and Modeling of Complex Petroleum Mixtures; Xu, C., Shi, Q., Eds.; Structure and Bonding; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 168; ISBN 9783319323206.
A chapter in an edited book
Blackstone, R.P. The History of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. In The ASMBS Textbook of Bariatric Surgery: Volume 1: Bariatric Surgery; Nguyen, N.T., Blackstone, R.P., Morton, J.M., Ponce, J., Rosenthal, R.J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2015; pp. 47–59 ISBN 9781493912056.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecules.

Blog post
Taub, B. Medical And Recreational Marijuana Approved In Several US States (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The SEASAT-A Project: Where It Stands Today; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhu, M. Numerical Investigation of Encapsulation Technology in Polymer Flooding Processes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. Nine Million Desserts, for Gabriel, Michael, Alessandra and More. New York Times 2017, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecules
ISSN (online)1420-3049
ScopeOrganic Chemistry

Other styles