How to format your references using the Molecules citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecules. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamel, F. Epidemiology. Paths from Pesticides to Parkinson’s. Science 2013, 341, 722–723.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillespie, R.G.; Roderick, G.K. Evolution: Geology and Climate Drive Diversification. Nature 2014, 509, 297–298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, S.; Calvin, K.; Li, H. RNA Recognition and Cleavage by a Splicing Endonuclease. Science 2006, 312, 906–910.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ricci, K.A.; Girosi, F.; Tarr, P.I.; Lim, Y.-W.; Mason, C.; Miller, M.; Hughes, J.; von Seidlein, L.; Agosti, J.M.; Guerrant, R.L. Reducing Stunting among Children: The Potential Contribution of Diagnostics. Nature 2006, 444 Suppl 1, 29–38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Placzek, D.; Bielecki, R.; Messing, M.; Schwarzer, F., Tunnel Zielgenau Bis Ans Ende Des Tunnels; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2016; ISBN 9783433605738.
An edited book
Programming Languages and Systems: 16th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2007, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practics of Software, ETAPS 2007, Braga, Portugal, March 24 - April 1, 2007. Proceedings; Nicola, R.D., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4421; ISBN 9783540713142.
A chapter in an edited book
Toffetti, G.; Gambi, A.; Pezzè, M.; Pautasso, C. Engineering Autonomic Controllers for Virtualized Web Applications. In Web Engineering: 10th International Conference, ICWE 2010, Vienna Austria, July 5-9, 2010. Proceedings; Benatallah, B., Casati, F., Kappel, G., Rossi, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 66–80 ISBN 9783642139109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecules.

Blog post
Andrew, E. We May One Day Be Reading by the Light of a Houseplant Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Automated Medical Records: Leadership Needed to Expedite Standards Development; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naik, M. Automating the Process of Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. Colombia and Rebels Agree to Talks. New York Times 2014, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecules
ISSN (online)1420-3049
ScopeOrganic Chemistry

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