How to format your references using the Molecules citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecules. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schenk, P.M. Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from a comparison of crater shapes. Nature 2002, 417, 419–421.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeMeo, F.E.; Carry, B. Solar System evolution from compositional mapping of the asteroid belt. Nature 2014, 505, 629–634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Postma, E.; Griffith, S.C.; Brooks, R. Evolutionary genetics: evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature 2006, 444, E16; discussion E16-7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsukamoto, S.; Kuma, A.; Murakami, M.; Kishi, C.; Yamamoto, A.; Mizushima, N. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos. Science 2008, 321, 117–120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linacre, A.M.T.; Tobe, S.S. Wildlife DNA Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118496411.
An edited book
ENT Board Prep: High Yield Review for the Otolaryngology In-service and Board Exams; Lin, F., Patel, Z., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; ISBN 9781461483533.
A chapter in an edited book
Ames, M.; Burcon, S. Selling Weddings and Producing Brides: Mediated Portrayals of That ‘Perfect Day.’ In How Pop Culture Shapes the Stages of a Woman’s Life: From Toddlers-in-Tiaras to Cougars-on-the-Prowl; Burcon, S., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; pp. 85–104 ISBN 9781349849918.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecules.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. How Saturn Got Its Unique Rings Revealed In New Model Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Policies on U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad Need Review and Reappraisal; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodard, J. Emergent properties. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset, R.; Eligon, J.; Horowitz, J.; Robles, F. A Hectic Day at Church, and Then a Hellish Visitor. New York Times 2015, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecules
ISSN (online)1420-3049
ScopeOrganic Chemistry

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