How to format your references using the Molecules citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecules. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venema, L. Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 3. Nature 2005, 433, 463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapira, P.; Wang, J. Follow the money. Nature 2010, 468, 627–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lawrence, K.T.; Liu, Z.; Herbert, T.D. Evolution of the eastern tropical Pacific through Plio-Pleistocene glaciation. Science 2006, 312, 79–83.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Bilodeau, G.; Weaver, A.J. Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period. Nature 2001, 410, 1073–1077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, G. Geotechnik; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783433602867.
An edited book
Academic Global Surgery; Swaroop, M., Krishnaswami, S., Eds.; Success in Academic Surgery; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319142975.
A chapter in an edited book
Komorowski, T.; Landim, C.; Olla, S. Bounds and Variational Principles for the Asymptotic Variance. In Fluctuations in Markov Processes: Time Symmetry and Martingale Approximation; Landim, C., Olla, S., Eds.; Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 137–151 ISBN 9783642298790.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecules.

Blog post
Taub, B. Gene Editing Saves The Life Of Baby Girl With Terminal Cancer Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Should the Bureau of Indian Affairs Continue To Provide Educational Services to Indian Children?; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKenzie, N.J. African/Black psychology: A qualitative investigation of distinguished Black psychologists. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. Fox Trades Motto of ‘Fair and Balanced’ for ‘Most Watched, Most Trusted.’ New York Times 2017, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecules
ISSN (online)1420-3049
ScopeOrganic Chemistry

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