How to format your references using the Conflict and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conflict and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Horvitz HR. Obituary: Stanley J. Korsmeyer (1950-2005). Nature. 2005;435:161.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Welker J, Giessibl FJ. Revealing the angular symmetry of chemical bonds by atomic force microscopy. Science. 2012;336:444–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim H-J, Lee J-H, Cho J-H. Antiferromagnetic Slater insulator phase of Na₂IrO₃. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5253.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bulmer JS, Martens J, Kurzepa L, Gizewski T, Egilmez M, Blamire MG, et al. Microwave conductivity of sorted CNT assemblies. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Das SK. Mobile Handset Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Oya M, Uda R, Yasunobu C, editors. Towards Sustainable Society on Ubiquitous Networks: The 8th IFIP Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E 2008), September 24–16, 2008, Tokyo, Japan. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lécué F, Silva E, Pires LF. A Framework for Dynamic Web Services Composition. In: Gschwind T, Pautasso C, editors. Emerging Web Services Technology, Volume II. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2008. p. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conflict and Health.

Blog post
1. Hale T. A Strangely Elongated Skull Of An Ancient Female Has Been Found In Korea [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Survey of Supervisors at U.S. Attorneys’ Offices, an E-supplement to GAO-04-422. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 May. Report No.: GAO-04-616SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nannapaneni D. Factors associated with HPV acceptability among parents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Reisner N, Fink S, Yee V. 8 Die After Power Fails at Care Center in Florida. New York Times. 2017 Sep 13;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleConflict and Health
AbbreviationConfl. Health
ISSN (online)1752-1505
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)

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