How to format your references using the Conflict and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conflict and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smith C. A question of form. Nature. 2003;422:341.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Serebrov V, Pyle AM. Periodic cycles of RNA unwinding and pausing by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Nature. 2004;430:476–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Prytkova TR, Kurnikov IV, Beratan DN. Coupling coherence distinguishes structure sensitivity in protein electron transfer. Science. 2007;315:622–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Craven L, Tuppen HA, Greggains GD, Harbottle SJ, Murphy JL, Cree LM, et al. Pronuclear transfer in human embryos to prevent transmission of mitochondrial DNA disease. Nature. 2010;465:82–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wing C. How Your House Works. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Farkas J. Optimum Design of Steel Structures. Jármai K, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stevens G, Pipek V, Wulf V. Appropriation Infrastructure: Supporting the Design of Usages. In: Pipek V, Rosson MB, Ruyter B de, Wulf V, editors. End-User Development: 2nd International Symposium, IS-EUD 2009, Siegen, Germany, March 2-4, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 50–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conflict and Health.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Earth “Ate” Another Planet Early In Its History [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School-Meals Programs: Additional Verification Could Help USDA Ensure Legitimate Access. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 May. Report No.: GAO-15-594T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dorrance AM. The Role of the Partial Tandem Duplication of MLL (MLL PTD) in Leukemogenesis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Richards-Ross Breaks American Drought In the Women’s 400. New York Times. 2012 Aug 6;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleConflict and Health
AbbreviationConfl. Health
ISSN (online)1752-1505
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)

Other styles