How to format your references using the Conflict and Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conflict and Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. O’Keeffe M. Edge effects. Nature. 2002;419:28–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Buesseler KO, Boyd PW. Climate change. Will ocean fertilization work? Science. 2003;300:67–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mohr JT, Krout MR, Stoltz BM. Natural products as inspiration for the development of asymmetric catalysis. Nature. 2008;455:323–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Slanger TG, Cosby PC, Huestis DL, Bida TA. Discovery of the atomic oxygen green line in the Venus night airglow. Science. 2001;291:463–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Parker D. International Valuation Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Viterbo J. Decentralized Reasoning in Ambient Intelligence. Endler M, editor. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Goyal P, Hwang PH. Septal and Turbinate Surgery. In: Kountakis SE, Önerci M, editors. Rhinologic and Sleep Apnea Surgical Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conflict and Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Trial Shows New Vaccine Safe And Effective Against 9 Strains Of HPV. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Inadequate Planning Increases Risk of Computer Failures in Los Angeles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jul. Report No.: IMTEC-90-49.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gokhin DS. Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper M. A Personal Milestone For A.B.T.’s Fall Season. New York Times. 2017 Jun 28;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleConflict and Health
AbbreviationConfl. Health
ISSN (online)1752-1505
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)

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