How to format your references using the Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blanke SR. Cell biology. Expanding functionality within the looking-glass universe. Science 2009;325:1505–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joughin I, Tulaczyk S. Positive mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica. Science 2002;295:476–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson SC, Rabinovitch PS, Kaeberlein M. mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease. Nature 2013;493:338–45.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith JB, Lamanna MC, Lacovara KJ, Dodson P, Smith JR, Poole JC, et al. A giant sauropod dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous mangrove deposit in Egypt. Science 2001;292:1704–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pahl J. Interference Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Balla T, Wymann M, York JD, editors. Phosphoinositides II: The Diverse Biological Functions. vol. 59. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Vanoverberghe D, Bjørner N, de Halleux J, Schulte W, Tillmann N. Using Dynamic Symbolic Execution to Improve Deductive Verification. In: Havelund K, Majumdar R, Palsberg J, editors. Model Checking Software: 15th International SPIN Workshop, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 10-12, 2008 Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 9–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids.

Blog post
Hale T. Tiny Monkey Causes Nationwide Blackout In Kenya. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Special Legislative Provision Concerning Compensation for Reemployed Retired Air Traffic Controllers]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee MY-L. The intellectual origins of Lin Yutang’s cultural internationalism, 1928–1938. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Personal Quest For a White Shirt. New York Times 2013:E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids
AbbreviationMol. Ther. Nucleic Acids
ISSN (print)2162-2531
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Drug Discovery

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