How to format your references using the Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nabel, G.J., 2005. Immunology. Close to the edge: neutralizing the HIV-1 envelope. Science 308, 1878–1879.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charbonneau, P., Smolarkiewicz, P.K., 2013. Astronomy. Modeling the solar dynamo. Science 340, 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buchner, D.A., Trudeau, M., Meisler, M.H., 2003. SCNM1, a putative RNA splicing factor that modifies disease severity in mice. Science 301, 967–969.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Amrani, A., Verdaguer, J., Serra, P., Tafuro, S., Tan, R., Santamaria, P., 2000. Progression of autoimmune diabetes driven by avidity maturation of a T-cell population. Nature 406, 739–742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahonen, T.T., Kasper, T., Melkko, S., 2005. 3G Marketing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Thomas, K.S., 2006. US Spacesuits, Springer Praxis Books. Praxis, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosner, M., Fabian, I.D., 2014. Squamous Cell Carcinoma, in: Pe’er, J., Singh, A.D. (Eds.), Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Eyelid and Conjunctival Tumors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Dams In Sub-Saharan Africa Linked To An Increase In Malaria Rates [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. HHS ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information (No. IMTEC-90-87FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anaya, S., 2009. Animo clinician training program for detection and treatment of depression during pregnancy and postpartum depression in low income Latina women a grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Cespedes Powers the Mets Again. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nabel, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Charbonneau and Smolarkiewicz, 2013; Nabel, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Charbonneau and Smolarkiewicz, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Amrani et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
AbbreviationMol. Phylogenet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1055-7903
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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