How to format your references using the Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D., 2010. World view: Brick by brick. Nature 465, 29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruno, R.M., Sakmann, B., 2006. Cortex is driven by weak but synchronously active thalamocortical synapses. Science 312, 1622–1627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Callou, C., Samzun, A., Zivie, A., 2004. Archaeology: a lion found in the Egyptian tomb of Maïa. Nature 427, 211–212.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Renner, F.U., Stierle, A., Dosch, H., Kolb, D.M., Lee, T.-L., Zegenhagen, J., 2006. Initial corrosion observed on the atomic scale. Nature 439, 707–710.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cousley, R.R.J., 2013. The Orthodontic Mini-Implant Clinical Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex UK.
An edited book
Harju, J., Heijenk, G., Langendörfer, P., Siris, V.A. (Eds.), 2008. Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 6th International Conference, WWIC 2008 Tampere, Finland, May 28-30, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner, R.G., 2013. A Classic Paving the Way to Modernity: The Ritual of Zhou in the Chinese Reform Debate Since the Taiping Civil War, in: Humphreys, S.C., Wagner, R.G. (Eds.), Modernity’s Classics, Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. 23andMe Will Resume Giving Health Data In The US [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Telling America’s Story to the World--Problems and Issues (No. B-118654). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valley, M.T., 2010. Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P., Vogel, K.P., 2017. Lawyers Clash Over Strategy By West Wing. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bruno and Sakmann, 2006; Sarewitz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bruno and Sakmann, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Renner et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
AbbreviationMol. Phylogenet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1055-7903
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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