How to format your references using the Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sweatt, J.D., 2010. Neuroscience. Epigenetics and cognitive aging. Science 328, 701–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vollrath, F., Knight, D.P., 2001. Liquid crystalline spinning of spider silk. Nature 410, 541–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, P.C., Keleshian, A.M., Sachs, F., 2001. Voltage-induced membrane movement. Nature 413, 428–432.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pimenta, B.V.S., Haddad, C.F.B., Nascimento, L.B., Cruz, C.A.G., Pombal, J.P., Jr, 2005. Comment on “Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide.” Science 309, 1999; author reply 1999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak, P., 2011. Fine Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Saudubray, J.-M., Baumgartner, M.R., Walter, J. (Eds.), 2016. Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Nuutila, E., Törmä, S., Kinnunen, P., Malmi, L., 2008. Learning Programming with the PBL Method — Experiences on PBL Cases and Tutoring, in: Bennedsen, J., Caspersen, M.E., Kölling, M. (Eds.), Reflections on the Teaching of Programming: Methods and Implementations, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. How Well You Do In School Depends More On Your DNA Than Your Determination, Study Finds [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Army Aviation: Modernization Strategy Needs to Be Reassessed (No. NSIAD-95-9). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustos, I., 2017. Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. Listening Hard to Softer Cries for Help. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sweatt, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sweatt, 2010; Vollrath and Knight, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vollrath and Knight, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pimenta et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
AbbreviationMol. Phylogenet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1055-7903
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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