How to format your references using the Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stafford, N., 2006. Angling saxons. Nature 441, 931.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vazquez, J.A., Reid, M.R., 2004. Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba magma. Science 305, 991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dankert, A., Dulal, R.S., Dash, S.P., 2013. Efficient spin injection into silicon and the role of the Schottky barrier. Sci. Rep. 3, 3196.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jørgensen, C., Sherman, A., Chen, G.I., Pasculescu, A., Poliakov, A., Hsiung, M., Larsen, B., Wilkinson, D.G., Linding, R., Pawson, T., 2009. Cell-specific information processing in segregating populations of Eph receptor ephrin-expressing cells. Science 326, 1502–1509.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort, H., 2005. Next Generation SDH/SONET. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bowyer, G., Cole, A. (Eds.), 2014. Selected References in Trauma and Orthopaedics. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Scheffers, A.M., Kelletat, D.H., 2016. Saline Lakes and Saltpans, in: Kelletat, D.H. (Ed.), Lakes of the World with Google Earth: Understanding Our Environment, Coastal Research Library. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 181–241.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Mike Pence, The US Vice President-Elect, Has Said He Doesn’t Believe That Smoking Kills [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Observations on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Fiscal Year 2000 Performance Plan (No. NSIAD-99-186R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geist, C., 2008. The marriage economy: Examining the economic impact and the context of marriage in comparative perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J.R., 2017. Cars Will Talk to One Another. Exactly How Is Less Certain. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stafford, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Stafford, 2006; Vazquez and Reid, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vazquez and Reid, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Jørgensen et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
AbbreviationMol. Phylogenet. Evol.
ISSN (print)1055-7903
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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