How to format your references using the West European Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West European Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu, Michael C. (2004). ‘Substructure in the circumstellar disk around the young star AU Microscopii’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 305:5689, 1442–1444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, Lei, and Sean J. Morrison (2013). ‘Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches’, Nature, 495:7440, 231–235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duan, L. M., J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller (2001). ‘Geometric manipulation of trapped ions for quantum computation’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 292:5522, 1695–1697.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Borodinsky, Laura N. et al. (2004). ‘Activity-dependent homeostatic specification of transmitter expression in embryonic neurons’, Nature, 429:6991, 523–530.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge, Michael (2016). Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Clark, Douglas P. (2005). Thyroid Cytopathology. William C. Faquin (ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vitousek, Peter, and Kamanamaikalani Beamer (2013). ‘Traditional Ecological Values, Knowledge, and Practices in Twenty-First Century Hawai‘i’, in Ricardo Rozzi,S. T. A. Pickett,Clare Palmer,Juan J. Armesto,and J. Baird Callicott (eds.), Linking Ecology and Ethics for a Changing World: Values, Philosophy, and Action, vol. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 63–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West European Politics.

Blog post
Davis, Josh (2015). ‘E-Cigarettes “Around 95% Less Harmful” Than Regular Smoking’, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). ‘Education’s Data Management Initiative: Significant Progress Made, but Better Planning Needed to Accomplish Project Goals’, , Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kress, Dionne M. A phenomenological study exploring executive coaching: Understanding perceptions of self-awareness and leadership behavior changes. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda ‘Justices Uphold a Death Sentence Twice Overturned’. New York Times, November 14, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liu 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Liu 2004, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding and Morrison 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Borodinsky et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWest European Politics
AbbreviationWest Eur. Polit.
ISSN (print)0140-2382
ISSN (online)1743-9655
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

Other styles