How to format your references using the West European Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West European Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Suttle, Curtis A. (2005). ‘Viruses in the sea’, Nature, 437:7057, 356–361.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghezzi, Ivan, and Clive Ruggles (2007). ‘Chankillo: a 2300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 315:5816, 1239–1243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubal, Deepak P., Rudolf Holze, and Pedro Gomez-Romero (2014). ‘Development of hybrid materials based on sponge supported reduced graphene oxide and transition metal hydroxides for hybrid energy storage devices’, Scientific reports, 4, 7349.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Finer, Matt, Clinton N. Jenkins, Melissa A. Blue Sky, and Justin Pine (2014). ‘Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon’, Scientific reports, 4, 4719.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedivy, Julie, and Greg Carlson (2011). Sold on Language. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Biba, Marenglen, and Fatos Xhafa, eds. (2011). Learning Structure and Schemas from Documents. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Erickson, Andrew S. (2016). ‘China’s Naval Modernization, Strategies, and Capabilities’, in Jo Inge Bekkevold and Geoffrey Till (eds.), International Order at Sea: How it is challenged. How it is maintained. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 63–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West European Politics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen (2015). ‘Pressure Drop Unleashes Eruptions’, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). ‘Surface Transportation: Clear Federal Role and Criteria-Based Selection Process Could Improve Three National and Regional Infrastructure Programs’, , Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purnell, Courtney Paschal Exploring teachers’ perceptions of professional development in virtual learning teams. Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Giordano, Mary Ann ‘New Frontier for Topics In Science: Social Media’. New York Times, January 1, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Suttle 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Suttle 2005; Ghezzi and Ruggles 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ghezzi and Ruggles 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Finer et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWest European Politics
AbbreviationWest Eur. Polit.
ISSN (print)0140-2382
ISSN (online)1743-9655
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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