How to format your references using the West European Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West European Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reinitz, John (2012). ‘Turing centenary: Pattern formation’, Nature, 482:7386, 464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spanò, Stefania, and Jorge E. Galán (2012). ‘A Rab32-dependent pathway contributes to Salmonella typhi host restriction’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 338:6109, 960–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wootton, Sarah K., Christine L. Halbert, and A. Dusty Miller (2005). ‘Sheep retrovirus structural protein induces lung tumours’, Nature, 434:7035, 904–907.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Zhu, Yu, Xiaoyong Hu, Hong Yang, and Qihuang Gong (2014). ‘On-chip plasmon-induced transparency based on plasmonic coupled nanocavities’, Scientific reports, 4, 3752.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGeough, J. A. (2013). The Engineering of Human Joint Replacements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Blaschke, Thomas, Stefan Lang, and Geoffrey J. Hay, eds. (2008). Object-Based Image Analysis: Spatial Concepts for Knowledge-Driven Remote Sensing Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Milovanović, Miloš et al. (2008). ‘Transactional Memory and OpenMP’, in Barbara Chapman et al. (eds.), A Practical Programming Model for the Multi-Core Era: 3rd International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2007, Beijing, China, June 3-7, 2007 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West European Politics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015). ‘Why Do My Muscles Ache The Day After Exercise?’, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). ‘Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened’, , Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios, Javier Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James ‘Mets Fall Again, and Weigh Options’. New York Times, July 31, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reinitz 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Reinitz 2012; Spanò and Galán 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spanò and Galán 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWest European Politics
AbbreviationWest Eur. Polit.
ISSN (print)0140-2382
ISSN (online)1743-9655
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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