How to format your references using the West European Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West European Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, Joel E. (2008). ‘Make secondary education universal’, Nature, 456:7222, 572–573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Deliang, and Tor Savidge (2015). ‘BIOPHYSICS. Comment on “Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase”’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 349:6251, 936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salje, Jeanne, Benoît Zuber, and Jan Löwe (2009). ‘Electron cryomicroscopy of E. coli reveals filament bundles involved in plasmid DNA segregation’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 323:5913, 509–512.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Qi, Zhenhua, Guangsheng Pei, Lei Chen, and Weiwen Zhang (2014). ‘Single-cell analysis reveals gene-expression heterogeneity in syntrophic dual-culture of Desulfovibrio vulgaris with Methanosarcina barkeri’, Scientific reports, 4, 7478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, Michael, and Norbert Krämer (2016). Hygiene in der Arzneimittelproduktion. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Navratil, Gerhard, ed. (2009). Research Trends in Geographic Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jha, Kumud Ranjan, and Ghanshyam Singh (2014). ‘Patch Array Antenna on EBG Substrate’, in Ghanshyam Singh (ed.), Terahertz Planar Antennas for Next Generation Communication, vol. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West European Politics.

Blog post
Davis, Josh (2016). ‘First-Ever Philistine Cemetery Unearthed In Israel’, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). ‘Capitalization and Use of the Automatic Data Processing Fund That Is Administered by the General Services Administration’, , Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, Denise L. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers’ expertise development. Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Montague, James ‘For the Obscure, a Welcome Payday’. New York Times, June 27, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen 2008; Chen and Savidge 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Savidge 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Qi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWest European Politics
AbbreviationWest Eur. Polit.
ISSN (print)0140-2382
ISSN (online)1743-9655
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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