How to format your references using the West European Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for West European Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kloosterman, Wigard P. (2015). ‘GENETICS. Making heads or tails of shattered chromosomes’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 348:6240, 1205–1206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero-Sedas, María I., and Miguel A. Vega-Palas (2013). ‘Differential association of Arabidopsis telomeres and centromeres with histone H3 variants’, Scientific reports, 3, 1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Danielewicz, Paweł, Roy Lacey, and William G. Lynch (2002). ‘Determination of the equation of state of dense matter’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 298:5598, 1592–1596.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Gago, Selma, Santiago F. Elena, Ricardo Flores, and Rafael Sanjuán (2009). ‘Extremely high mutation rate of a hammerhead viroid’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 323:5919, 1308.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Razik, Hubert (2013). Handbook of Asynchronous Machine with Variable Speed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Malhotra, Ripudaman, ed. (2013). Fossil Energy: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gomes, Juliana F. S., Fabiana R. Leta, Pedro B. Costa, and Felipe de O. Baldner (2014). ‘Important Parameters for Image Color Analysis: An Overview’, in Fabiana Rodrigues Leta (ed.), Visual Computing: Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems, Augmented Vision and Reality. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 81–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for West European Politics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen (2017). ‘Smart Female Guppies With Bigger Brains Choose More Attractive Mates’, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). ‘[Recommendation to Congress To Relieve FAA Employee of Liability for Erroneous Payment]’, , Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scuderi, Noelle F. Servant leadership and transformational leadership in church organizations. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. ‘With Emphasis on Safety, Playgrounds Aren’t for All’. New York Times, October 23, 14LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kloosterman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kloosterman 2015; Vaquero-Sedas and Vega-Palas 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaquero-Sedas and Vega-Palas 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gago et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWest European Politics
AbbreviationWest Eur. Polit.
ISSN (print)0140-2382
ISSN (online)1743-9655
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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