How to format your references using the Molecular Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. AAAS members fret over links with theological foundation. Nature. 2000;403:819.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Puszkarski H, Tomczak P. Spin-wave resonance model of surface pinning in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As thin films. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6135.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Johnson SC, Rabinovitch PS, Kaeberlein M. mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease. Nature. 2013;493:338–45.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kerry PS, Mohan S, Russell RJM, Bance N, Niikura M, Pinto BM. Structural basis for a class of nanomolar influenza A neuraminidase inhibitors. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ekenna O. Cases in Clinical Infectious Disease Practice: Obtaining a good history from the patient remains the cornerstone of an accurate clinical diagnosis: Lessons learned in many years of clinical practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Tasić A, Serdijn WA, Larson LE, Setti G, editors. Circuits and Systems for Future Generations of Wireless Communications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Genovese A, Piuri V, Scotti F. Palmprint Biometrics. In: Piuri V, Scotti F, editors. Touchless Palmprint Recognition Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 49–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Pain.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Unravel Mechanism Behind Firefly Flashing [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scientists-unravel-mechanism-behind-firefly-flashing/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: HUD Needs to Address Management and Governance Weaknesses That Jeopardize Its Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Jul. Report No.: GAO-16-656.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chamoun A. Molecular characterization of a subset of KRAB-ZFPs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schmidt MS. Trump Appealed to Comey to Halt Inquiry Into Aide. New York Times. 2017 May 16;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Pain
AbbreviationMol. Pain
ISSN (online)1744-8069
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Other styles