How to format your references using the Molecular Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mirabel IF. Astronomy. Very energetic gamma-rays from microquasars and binary pulsars. Science. 2006;312:1759–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ashworth AC, Thompson FC. Palaeontology: A fly in the biogeographic ointment. Nature. 2003;423:135–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. López CA, de Vries AH, Marrink SJ. Computational microscopy of cyclodextrin mediated cholesterol extraction from lipid model membranes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2071.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tang W-J, Yang Y-A, Xu H, Shi J-B, Liu X-H. Synthesis and discovery of 18α-GAMG as anticancer agent in vitro and in vivo via down expression of protein p65. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kwartler T. Text Mining in Practice with R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Ware GW, Nigg HN, Doerge DR, editors. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ritter S. Riding the Third Wave. In: Aleven V, Kay J, Mostow J, editors. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 4–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Pain.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Human Poop-Powered Bus Hits UK Roads [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Education Should Strengthen Oversight of Schools and Accreditors [Reissued on January 22, 2015]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Dec. Report No.: GAO-15-59.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Meyer-Barrett JM. Exercising Their Privilege to Borrow: A Demonstrated Understanding of the Obligation of Student Loans in a Community College [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Sempra Bid Tops Buffett in Billionaires’ Race for Energy Future. New York Times. 2017 Aug 21;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Pain
AbbreviationMol. Pain
ISSN (online)1744-8069
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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