How to format your references using the Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Davis E. Volcanic action at Axial Seamount. Nature. 2000;403:379–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hemberger M, Pedersen R. Stem cells. Epigenome disruptors. Science. 2010;330:598–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Blois JL, McGuire JL, Hadly EA. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change. Nature. 2010;465:771–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. De Luca A, Caraveo PA, Mereghetti S, Tiengo A, Bignami GF. A long-period, violently variable X-ray source in a young supernova remnant. Science. 2006;313:814–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Di Stefano M. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Torres A. Clinical Management of Bacterial Pneumonia. Cillóniz C, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Humphries B, Abel T. Modelling the Dispersion of Pollutants: Two Case Studies. In: Taylor E, McMillan A, editors. Air Quality Management: Canadian Perspectives on a Global Issue. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 99–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. A Potential Dark Matter Signature Has Been Seen in The Andromeda Galaxy. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Administration’s Suspension of the Butane Lighter Ban Onboard Commercial Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Dec. Report No.: GAO-09-177R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dunn DN. Non-Athlete Students’ Attitudes toward Student-Athletes: A Social Identity Approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Southall A. 2 Charged With Murder After a Buried Body Is Found in New Jersey. New York Times. 2016 Nov 18;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgical Innovation and Research
AbbreviationAnn. Surg. Innov. Res.
ISSN (online)1750-1164

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