How to format your references using the Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baker M. Biorepositories: Building better biobanks. Nature. 2012;486:141–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Furukawa A, Tanaka H. Violation of the incompressibility of liquid by simple shear flow. Nature. 2006;443:434–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Alfe D, Gillan MJ, Price GD. Constraints on the composition of the Earth’s core from ab initio calculations. Nature. 2000;405:172–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Calais E, Mattioli G, DeMets C, Nocquet J-M, Stein S, Newman A, et al. Seismology: tectonic strain in plate interiors? Nature. 2005;438:E9-10; discussion E10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Horrocks G. Greek. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Wieder P, Butler JM, Theilmann W, Yahyapour R, editors. Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Capaccioli M, Galano S. La giostra dei personaggi nel crepuscolo dei Borbone. In: Galano S, editor. Arminio Nobile e la misura del cielo: ovvero Le disavventure di un astronomo napoletano. Milano: Springer; 2012. p. 57–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hot Weather And CO2 Made The Tropics A No-Go Zone For Early Plant-Eating Dinosaurs [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Competition: Effects on Consumers from Domestic Airline Alliances Vary. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jan. Report No.: RCED-99-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Banks GM. The revolution will not be gender-ized [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM. A Fox News Host Criticizes Trump, and Some Viewers Bristle. New York Times. 2017 Aug 16;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgical Innovation and Research
AbbreviationAnn. Surg. Innov. Res.
ISSN (online)1750-1164

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