How to format your references using the Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Garber K. Genetics: Deep exploration. Nature. 2012;492:S56-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Spero HJ, Lea DW. The cause of carbon isotope minimum events on glacial terminations. Science. 2002;296:522–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wang P-Y, Weng J, Anderson RGW. OSBP is a cholesterol-regulated scaffolding protein in control of ERK 1/2 activation. Science. 2005;307:1472–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mehlmann LM, Saeki Y, Tanaka S, Brennan TJ, Evsikov AV, Pendola FL, et al. The Gs-linked receptor GPR3 maintains meiotic arrest in mammalian oocytes. Science. 2004;306:1947–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Glasgow LA. Applied Mathematics for Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Gilmer PJ, Tansel B, Miller MH, editors. Alliances for Advancing Academic Women: Guidelines for Collaborating in STEM Fields. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Worden K. Structural Health Monitoring using Pattern Recognition. In: Deraemaeker A, Worden K, editors. New Trends in Vibration Based Structural Health Monitoring. Vienna: Springer; 2011. p. 183–246.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Baboons Hang With Those Like Them [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education’s Chapter 1 and 2 Programs and Local Dropout Prevention and Reentry Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Mar. Report No.: T-HRD-87-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cannon CA. Comparison of language arts scores between computerized and teacher differentiation of instruction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Mets Quickly Lose Niese to Injury but Still Get a Win. New York Times. 2016 Aug 24;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgical Innovation and Research
AbbreviationAnn. Surg. Innov. Res.
ISSN (online)1750-1164

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