How to format your references using the Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kuypers MMM. Microbiology. Sizing up the uncultivated majority. Science. 2007;317:1510–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Knepper MA, Agre P. Structural biology. The atomic architecture of a gas channel. Science. 2004;305:1573–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Suma K, Sumiyoshi Y, Endo Y. The rotational spectrum and structure of the HOOO radical. Science. 2005;308:1885–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fortunato S, Bergstrom CT, Börner K, Evans JA, Helbing D, Milojević S, et al. Science of science. Science. 2018;359.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bell M. Incremental Software Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Cuevas-Maraver J, Kevrekidis PG, Williams F, editors. The sine-Gordon Model and its Applications: From Pendula and Josephson Junctions to Gravity and High-Energy Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. von Stackelberg J. Control of Distributed Autonomous Systems – How to Get a Swarm to Succeed over an Overwhelming Challenge. In: Unger H, Kyamaky K, Kacprzyk J, editors. Autonomous Systems: Developments and Trends. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 41–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. This Woman Can Smell Parkinson’s Disease [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: PEMD-95-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Collins L. A community risk assessment of the 90062 zip code [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Induct Steinbrenner? Let’s Think About This. New York Times. 2010 Nov 11;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgical Innovation and Research
AbbreviationAnn. Surg. Innov. Res.
ISSN (online)1750-1164

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