How to format your references using the Arachne citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachne. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2015): Big data: The power of petabytes. Nature (527)7576: S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheffield, M.E.J. & D.A. Dombeck (2015): Calcium transient prevalence across the dendritic arbour predicts place field properties. Nature (517)7533: 200–204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashiro, H., N. Isomura, et al. (2014): Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Scientific reports (4): 6032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deng, H., G. Weihs, et al. (2002): Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons. Science (New York, N.Y.) (298)5591: 199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ni, Z., C. Pacoret, et al. (2014): Haptic Feedback Teleoperation of Optical Tweezers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bart, H. (2010): 200 A State Space Approach to Canonical Factorization with Applications. M. A. Kaashoek and A. C. M. Ran (Eds). Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Spector, T. & C.-C. Fung (2014): Remediation of Physical Exam Skills. In: A. Kalet and C. L. Chou (Eds), Remediation in Medical Education: A Mid-Course Correction. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachne.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016): Pandas Don’t Have A Crazy Low Metabolism. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989): Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaffer, S. (2013): Harnessing innovation in the 21st century: the impact of leadership styles. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Turkewitz, J. (2016): Mayor’s Arrest and Link to the Death of a Boy Have Divided a California City. New York Times: A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Eisenstein (2015).
This sentence cites two references Eisenstein (2015); Sheffield & Dombeck (2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three or more authors: Deng et al. (2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachne
ISSN (print)1613-2688

Other styles