How to format your references using the Arachne citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachne. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries, C. (2013): Adoptive cell therapy: Honing that killer instinct. Nature (504)7480: S13-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simons, K. & I.W. Mattaj (2011): Retrospective. Lennart Philipson (1929-2011). Science (New York, N.Y.) (333)6043: 711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rignot, E., J. Mouginot, et al. (2011): Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet. Science (New York, N.Y.) (333)6048: 1427–1430.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murakami, S., R. Nakashima, et al. (2006): Crystal structures of a multidrug transporter reveal a functionally rotating mechanism. Nature (443)7108: 173–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esmailzadeh, R. (2006): Broadband Wireless Communications Business. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mark, D. (2015): More iPhone Development with Swift: Exploring the iOS SDK. J. Varma, J. LaMarche, A. Horovitz, and K. Kim (Eds). Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaboo, C.S. (2011): Defensive Behaviors in Leaf Beetles: From the Unusual to the Weird. In: J. M. Vivanco and T. Weir (Eds), Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachne.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014): Hubble Provides Most Detailed Weather Map Ever Constructed for Exoplanet. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986): Deaf Education: Costs and Student Characteristics at Federally Assisted Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffier, J. (2015): A qualitative evaluation of the role of artistic expression in psychological empowerment of bullying victims. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008): Detainees at Guantánamo Fight Further Appeal Delay. New York Times: A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Humphries (2013).
This sentence cites two references Humphries (2013); Simons & Mattaj (2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three or more authors: Murakami et al. (2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachne
ISSN (print)1613-2688

Other styles