How to format your references using the Arachne citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachne. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2005): Malaysia plans “red book” in its attempts to go green. Nature (436)7049: 313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Golz, J. & D.I.A. MacLeod (2002): Influence of scene statistics on colour constancy. Nature (415)6872: 637–640.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shiono, M., N. Matsugaki, et al. (2005): Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment. Nature (436)7052: 791.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Urnius, E., W.W. Brennessel, et al. (2002): A carbon-free sandwich complex [(P5)2Ti]2-. Science (New York, N.Y.) (295)5556: 832–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keegan, K.D. (2008): Biotechnology Valuation. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Huang, D.-S., V. Bevilacqua, et al. eds. (2014): 8588 Intelligent Computing Theory: 10th International Conference, ICIC 2014, Taiyuan, China, August 3-6, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Garg, J., N. Bonini, et al. (2014): First-Principles Determination of Phonon Lifetimes, Mean Free Paths, and Thermal Conductivities in Crystalline Materials: Pure Silicon and Germanium. In: S. L. Shindé and G. P. Srivastava (Eds), Length-Scale Dependent Phonon Interactions. Topics in Applied Physics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 115–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachne.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015): Practically Unknown STI Could Have Infected Huge Numbers Of People Without Them Knowing Anything About It. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973): Problems in Regulating Selected Vaccines. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gustus, C.H. (2017): E-Mentoring an Educator in a State School for the Deaf: An Action Research Study. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lichtblau, E. (2016): N.R.A.’s Wins in Congress Grow With Lobbyist’s Role. New York Times: A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleArachne
ISSN (print)1613-2688

Other styles