How to format your references using the Arachne citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachne. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shalala, D.E. (2011): Retrospective. Bernadine Healy (1944-2011). Science (New York, N.Y.) (333)6051: 1836.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herzberg, C. & E. Gazel (2009): Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes. Nature (458)7238: 619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ortega, F., F. Escaso, et al. (2010): A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain. Nature (467)7312: 203–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, J.-S., G. Wang, et al. (2013): Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils. Scientific reports (3): 3102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, S.V. (2001): Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Porcu, E., J. Montero, et al. eds. (2012): 207 Advances and Challenges in Space-time Modelling of Natural Events. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gasteuil, Y. & J.-F. Pinton (2009): Linear and angular dynamics of an inertial particle in turbulence. In: B. Eckhardt (Ed), Advances in Turbulence XII: Proceedings of the 12th EUROMECH European Turbulence Conference, September 7-10, 2009, Marburg, Germany. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 19–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachne.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015): The Blue Bottles Are Coming, But What Exactly Are These Creatures? IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978): The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bates, K. (2017): Drivers of Engagement for Volunteers in a Nonprofit. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017): Back on the Mound, Harvey Has Issues With Command. New York Times: D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Shalala (2011).
This sentence cites two references Herzberg & Gazel (2009); Shalala (2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three or more authors: Wang et al. (2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachne
ISSN (print)1613-2688

Other styles