How to format your references using the Arachne citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachne. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J. (2006): Environmental science. Climate sensors dropped from U.S. weather satellite package. Science (New York, N.Y.) (312)5780: 1580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waitukaitis, S.R. & H.M. Jaeger (2012): Impact-activated solidification of dense suspensions via dynamic jamming fronts. Nature (487)7406: 205–209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldreich, P., Y. Lithwick, et al. (2002): Formation of Kuiper-belt binaries by dynamical friction and three-body encounters. Nature (420)6916: 643–646.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johnson, C.P., H.-Y. Tang, et al. (2007): Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science (New York, N.Y.) (317)5838: 663–666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holloway, M. & C. Nwaoha (2012): Dictionary of Industrial Terms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bessis, N. & C. Dobre eds. (2014): 546 Big Data and Internet of Things: A Roadmap for Smart Environments. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wasserman, T. & L.D. Wasserman (2016): The Effect of Learning on the Development of the Connectome. In: L. D. Wasserman (Ed), Depathologizing Psychopathology: The Neuroscience of Mental Illness and Its Treatment. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachne.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014): Pig Heart Transplants For Humans Could Be On Their Way. IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992): NASA Procurement: Improving the Management of Delegated Contract Functions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckenridge, C. (2017): Measuring Object and Attribute Salience in 2014 Illinois Gubernatorial Endorsements. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher, S. (2017): First Tinder, Then Marriage? New York Times: D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleArachne
ISSN (print)1613-2688

Other styles