How to format your references using the Arachne citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arachne. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharp, T. (2014): Earth science. Bridgmanite--named at last. Science (New York, N.Y.) (346)6213: 1057–1058.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, P.S. & A.R. Aricescu (2014): Crystal structure of a human GABAA receptor. Nature (512)7514: 270–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeon, S.-M., N.S. Chandel, et al. (2012): AMPK regulates NADPH homeostasis to promote tumour cell survival during energy stress. Nature (485)7400: 661–665.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tharun, S., W. He, et al. (2000): Yeast Sm-like proteins function in mRNA decapping and decay. Nature (404)6777: 515–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeish, B. (2010): Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Skolnik, N.S. & R.H. Albert eds. (2008): Essential Infectious Disease Topics for Primary Care. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Cui, A. & S.J. Stolfo (2011): Symbiotes and defensive Mutualism: Moving Target Defense. In: S. Jajodia, A. K. Ghosh, V. Swarup, C. Wang, and X. S. Wang (Eds), Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats. Advances in Information Security. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 99–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arachne.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014): Why Do We Itch? IFLScience. Available from: (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990): Shared Resources Project: Evaluation Report. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ishutov, S. (2013): Tectonic characterization of the THUMS-Huntington Beach fault, offshore southern California. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017): A Quiet Member of the Canon. New York Times: BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Sharp (2014).
This sentence cites two references Miller & Aricescu (2014); Sharp (2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three or more authors: Tharun et al. (2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleArachne
ISSN (print)1613-2688

Other styles