How to format your references using the Molecular Neurodegeneration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Neurodegeneration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lafferty KD. Microbiology. Interacting parasites. Science. 2010;330:187–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rhie J, Romanowicz B. Excitation of Earth’s continuous free oscillations by atmosphere-ocean-seafloor coupling. Nature. 2004;431:552–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tersoff J, Jesson DE, Tang WX. Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide. Science. 2009;324:236–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yang Z-Y, Wei C-J, Kong W-P, Wu L, Xu L, Smith DF, et al. Immunization by avian H5 influenza hemagglutinin mutants with altered receptor binding specificity. Science. 2007;317:825–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Liu E, Noppe-Brandon S. Imagination First. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2011.
An edited book
1. Karl HA, Scarlett L, Vargas-Moreno JC, Flaxman M, editors. Restoring Lands - Coordinating Science, Politics and Action: Complexities of Climate and Governance. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Slota M, Baláž M, Leite J. On Supporting Strong and Default Negation in Answer-Set Program Updates. In: Bazzan ALC, Pichara K, editors. Advances in Artificial Intelligence -- IBERAMIA 2014: 14th Ibero-American Conference on AI, Santiago de Chile, Chile, November 24-27, 2014, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Neurodegeneration.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Genetic Study Reveals The Surprising Ancestry Of Ancient Egyptians. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Questions Remain on the Costs, Uses, and Risks of the Redesigned Space Station. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 May. Report No.: T-NSIAD-91-26.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. De Anda B. Factors that contribute to the stigma of mental illness [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. Theodore Roosevelt on How You Kill a Lion. New York Times. 2015 Aug 7;C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Neurodegeneration
AbbreviationMol. Neurodegener.
ISSN (online)1750-1326
ScopeMolecular Biology
Clinical Neurology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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