How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bourzac K. Interventions: Live long and prosper. Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):S18-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Mühlenbruch B, Jochimsen MA. Research policy: Only wholesale reform will bring equality. Nature. 2013 Mar 7;495(7439):40–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ho BT, Basler M, Mekalanos JJ. Type 6 secretion system-mediated immunity to type 4 secretion system-mediated gene transfer. Science. 2013 Oct 11;342(6155):250–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Cawkwell MJ, Nguyen-Manh D, Woodward C, Pettifor DG, Vitek V. Origin of brittle cleavage in iridium. Science. 2005 Aug 12;309(5737):1059–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chiang H-D. Direct Methods for Stability Analysis of Electric Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Benedetti R. Sampling Spatial Units for Agricultural Surveys. Piersimoni F, Postiglione P, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. XVIII, 325 p. 44 illus. (Advances in Spatial Science, The Regional Science Series).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kurematsu M, Hakura J, Fujita H. A Framework for a Decision Tree Learning Algorithm with K-NN. In: Fujita H, Selamat A, editors. Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–51. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Here’s How The World’s Surface Water Has Shifted In The Last 30 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/heres-how-worlds-surface-water-shifted-last-30-years/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Should Assess the Design of the E-rate Program’s Internal Control Structure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Sep. Report No.: GAO-10-908.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dandavate R. Building Cultural Understanding Through Cultural Exchange [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. Gallery? Studio? Home? Blurring the Lines, Artists Paint and Sell. New York Times. 2002 Apr 24;G23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1040-8738
ISSN (online)1531-7021
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Ophthalmology

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