How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall CR. ECOLOGY/PALEONTOLOGY. How stable are food webs during a mass extinction? Science. 2015 Oct 2;350(6256):38–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andreae MO, Ramanathan V. Climate change. Climate’s dark forcings. Science. 2013 Apr 19;340(6130):280–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansen B, Turrell WR, Østerhus S. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950. Nature. 2001 Jun 21;411(6840):927–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dunn RA, Toomey DR, Detrick RS, Wilcock WS. Continuous mantle melt supply beneath an overlapping spreading center on the East Pacific Rise. Science. 2001 Mar 9;291(5510):1955–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown BL, Hendrix SB, Hedges DW, Smith TB. Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Bünemann E, Oberson A, Frossard E, editors. Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XV, 483 p. (Soil Biology; vol. 26).
A chapter in an edited book
Cerone P, Dragomir SS, Kikianty E. Error Bounds for Trapezoid Type Quadrature Rules with Applications for the Mean and Variance. In: Daras NJ, editor. Applications of Mathematics and Informatics in Science and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 77–93. (Springer Optimization and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Physics Of Poo: Why It Takes You And An Elephant The Same Amount Of Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Improve Policies and Procedures for Approving Grants Under the Emergency School Assistance Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Mar. Report No.: B-164031.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danso Odei PK. Effective Resolution of The Bibiani-Anhwianso-Bekwai District Healthcare Delivery System: An Outcome-Based Evaluative Case [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Fantasy Frenzy? Or Eerie Dreams? New York Times. 2017 Aug 24;C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1040-8738
ISSN (online)1531-7021
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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