How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stewart W. Applied physics. The power to set you free. Science. 2007 Jul 6;317(5834):55–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Geim AK, Grigorieva IV. Van der Waals heterostructures. Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):419–25.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Taylor PD, Day T, Wild G. Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature. 2007 May 24;447(7143):469–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Johnsen A, Andersen V, Sunding C, Lifjeld JT. Female bluethroats enhance offspring immunocompetence through extra-pair copulations. Nature. 2000 Jul 20;406(6793):296–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Braha A, Groza G. Moderne Abwassertechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Eleftherakis G, Hinchey M, Holcombe M, editors. Software Engineering and Formal Methods: 10th International Conference, SEFM 2012, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 1-5, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XIV, 384 p. 103 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7504).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hayakawa K, Pham L-DD, Arai K, Lo EH. High-Mobility Group Box 1: An Amplifier of Stem and Progenitor Cell Activity After Stroke. In: Katayama Y, Maeda T, Kuroiwa T, editors. Brain Edema XV. Vienna: Springer; 2013. p. 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Why You Should Never Mix Alcohol With Energy Drinks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/risks-mixing-alcohol-energy-drinks/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Exploration: NASA’s Deep Space Missions Are Experiencing Long Delays. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 May. Report No.: NSIAD-88-128BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wood RD. Correlation of conductor leadership style, musician employment status, organizational participation to orchestra musician job satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Schwartz J. Irma’s Shifting Forecasts: Probability and Uncertainty, With Room for Improvement. New York Times. 2017 Sep 10;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1040-8738
ISSN (online)1531-7021
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Ophthalmology

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