How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Brody H. Cancer. Nature. 2014 May 29;509(7502):S49.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wrachtrup J, Finkler A. Applied physics: Hybrid sensors ring the changes. Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):380–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Fish J, Raule N, Attardi G. Discovery of a major D-loop replication origin reveals two modes of human mtDNA synthesis. Science. 2004 Dec 17;306(5704):2098–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ritenberg M, Beilis E, Ilovitsh A, Barkai Z, Shahmoon A, Richter S, et al. “Beating speckles” via electrically-induced vibrations of Au nanorods embedded in sol-gel. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 13;4:3666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sapienza AM. Managing Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1.
Kielanowski P, Ali ST, Odesskii A, Odzijewicz A, Schlichenmaier M, Voronov T, editors. Geometric Methods in Physics: XXXI Workshop, Białowieża, Poland, June 24–30, 2012. Basel: Springer; 2013. X, 237 p. (Trends in Mathematics).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Nehring D, Alvarado E, Hendriks EC, Kerrigan D. Self-Help Entrepreneurs in China. In: Alvarado E, Hendriks EC, Kerrigan D, editors. Transnational Popular Psychology and the Global Self-Help Industry: The Politics of Contemporary Social Change. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 54–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. Adorable Panda Twins Born At Smithsonian National Zoo [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/surprise-panda-twins-born/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Discretionary Grants: Education Needs to Improve Its Oversight of Grants Monitoring. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Apr. Report No.: GAO-17-266.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Clark M. How Charter School Teachers Act on Perceived Autonomy: A Qualitative Study of Curricular Decisions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. A Hurdle to Transparency. New York Times. 2015 Nov 5;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1040-8738
ISSN (online)1531-7021
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Ophthalmology

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