How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Reimer PJ. Atmospheric science. Refining the radiocarbon time scale. Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):337–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Reubi O, Blundy J. A dearth of intermediate melts at subduction zone volcanoes and the petrogenesis of arc andesites. Nature. 2009 Oct 29;461(7268):1269–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tarchini B, Duboule D, Kmita M. Regulatory constraints in the evolution of the tetrapod limb anterior-posterior polarity. Nature. 2006 Oct 26;443(7114):985–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Turner J, Lachlan-Cope TA, Colwell S, Marshall GJ, Connolley WM. Significant warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere. Science. 2006 Mar 31;311(5769):1914–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Frank P, Ottoboni MA. The Dose Makes the Poison. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Puglisi J, editor. Structure and Biophysics – New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. VII, 155 p. (NATO Science Series).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Janjuha-Jivraj S, Chisholm K. Why Championing Works So Well for Women. In: Chisholm K, editor. Championing Women Leaders: Beyond Sponsorship. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Flies Deliberate Before Difficult Decisions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/flies-deliberate-difficult-decisions/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Telephone Communications: Issues Affecting Rural Telephone Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Mar. Report No.: RCED-87-74.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Khaleghi FK. Evaluating Satisfaction of Participants within the Outreach and Engagement Program of MECCA [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Grynbaum MM. Lead Story. New York Times. 2017 Jul 29;ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1040-8738
ISSN (online)1531-7021
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Ophthalmology

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