How to format your references using the Behavioral Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioral Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sporn, M.B. Perspective: The Big C - for Chemoprevention. Nature 2011, 471, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jahn, R.; Fasshauer, D. Molecular Machines Governing Exocytosis of Synaptic Vesicles. Nature 2012, 490, 201–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson, P.D.; Moje, E.; Greenleaf, C. Literacy and Science: Each in the Service of the Other. Science 2010, 328, 459–463.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stoleru, D.; Peng, Y.; Agosto, J.; Rosbash, M. Coupled Oscillators Control Morning and Evening Locomotor Behaviour of Drosophila. Nature 2004, 431, 862–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quesnel, F. Scheduling of Large-Scale Virtualized Infrastructures; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118790335.
An edited book
Integrated Formal Methods: 7th International Conference, IFM 2009, Düsseldorf, Germany, February 16-19, 2009. Proceedings; Leuschel, M., Wehrheim, H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5423; ISBN 9783642002540.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Tubaikh, J.A. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage. In Internal Medicine: An Illustrated Radiological Guide; Al-Tubaikh, J.A., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 39–40 ISBN 9783642037085.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioral Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Edge Closer To Stem Cell Therapy For Parkinson’s Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office U.S. Infrastructure: Funding Trends and Federal Agencies’ Investment Estimates; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheim, J.N. Examination of Oncology Summer Camp Attendance, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Perceived Social Support Among Pediatric Cancer Patients and Siblings. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J. Model Makes A Stand With Feminist Art. New York Times 2017, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioral Sciences
AbbreviationBehav. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-328X

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