How to format your references using the Molecular and Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular and Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theissen G: Genetics of identity. Nature 414: 491, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milutinovich M and Koshland DE: Molecular biology. SMC complexes--wrapped up in controversy. Science 300: 1101–1102, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stratton MR, Campbell PJ and Futreal PA: The cancer genome. Nature 458: 719–724, 2009.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Holden LG, Prochnow C, Chang YP, et al.: Crystal structure of the anti-viral APOBEC3G catalytic domain and functional implications. Nature 456: 121–124, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maré J-C: Aerospace Actuators 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Karacapilidis N: Mastering Data-Intensive Collaboration and Decision Making: Research and practical applications in the Dicode project. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Pendyala S and Katkoori S: Interval Arithmetic and Self Similarity Based Subthreshold Leakage Optimization in RTL Datapaths. In: VLSI-SoC: Internet of Things Foundations: 22nd IFIP WG 10.5/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI-SoC 2014, Playa del Carmen, Mexico, October 6-8, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Claesen L, Sanz-Pascual M-T, Reis R and Sarmiento-Reyes A (eds.) Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp75–94, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular and Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Gene Cernan, The Last Person To Set Foot On The Moon, Dies At 82. IFLScience, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: The Federal Information Processing Standards Program: Many Potential Benefits, Little Progress, and Many Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuls M: Single item versus multiple items: An examination of validity and the impact of mood in measuring constructs., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD: Democratic Coalition Plans Attacks on G.O.P. Over Health Care Law. New York Times: A19, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular and Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationMol. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2049-9450
ISSN (online)2049-9469
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles