How to format your references using the Molecular and Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular and Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knutson B: Behavior. Sweet revenge? Science 305: 1246–1247, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann AA and Sgrò CM: Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature 470: 479–485, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan N, Fu Z and Liu S: Extracting climate memory using Fractional Integrated Statistical Model: a new perspective on climate prediction. Sci Rep 4: 6577, 2014.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nan T, Hui Y, Rinaldi M and Sun NX: Self-biased 215 MHz magnetoelectric NEMS resonator for ultra-sensitive DC magnetic field detection. Sci Rep 3: 1985, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murdoch I, Turpin S, Johnston B, MacLullich A and Losman E: Geriatric Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Veronese FM: PEGylated Protein Drugs: Basic Science and Clinical Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodridge HS and Underhill DM: Fungal Recognition by TLR2 and Dectin-1. In: Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and Innate Immunity. Bauer S and Hartmann G (eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp87–109, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular and Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
Hamilton K: Health Check: Is Man Flu Real? IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Tax System Modernization: IRS’ Efforts to Improve Taxpayer Correspondence. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilkes DM: Multiple modes of Mdmx regulation affect p53 activation., 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K: Takeout That Moved On. New York Times: NJ11, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular and Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationMol. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2049-9450
ISSN (online)2049-9469
ScopeCancer Research

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