How to format your references using the Molecular and Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular and Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham-Rowe D: Overview: Multiple lines of attack. Nature 480: S34-5, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vähärautio A and Taipale J: Cancer. Cancer by super-enhancer. Science 346: 1291–1292, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shimojo S, Kamitani Y and Nishida S: Afterimage of perceptually filled-in surface. Science 293: 1677–1680, 2001.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen Y, Corriden R, Inoue Y, et al.: ATP release guides neutrophil chemotaxis via P2Y2 and A3 receptors. Science 314: 1792–1795, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi MH: Troubleshooting the Sequencing Batch Reactor. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Maldonado-Maldonado A and Bassett RM: The Forefront of International Higher Education: A Festschrift in Honor of Philip G. Altbach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Pardos ZA, Dailey MD and Heffernan NT: Learning What Works in ITS from Non-traditional Randomized Controlled Trial Data. In: Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Aleven V, Kay J and Mostow J (eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp41–50, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular and Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E: The Oceans Are Changing Too Fast For Marine Life To Keep Up. IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Safety: Causes of Injury in Automobile Crashes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chon JY: Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J: Sciencetake; Hungry Bumble Bees Buzz for Their Suppers. New York Times: D2, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular and Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationMol. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2049-9450
ISSN (online)2049-9469
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles