How to format your references using the Molecular and Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular and Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mastrandrea MD: Obituary: Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010). Nature 466: 933, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilfinger A and Paulsson J: Systems biology: Defiant daughters and coordinated cousins. Nature 519: 422–423, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur B, McLoughlin S and Vajda V: Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science 343: 1376–1377, 2014.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim Y, Strelcov E, Hwang IR, Choi T, Park BH, Jesse S and Kalinin SV: Correlative multimodal probing of ionically-mediated electromechanical phenomena in simple oxides. Sci Rep 3: 2924, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Dudek SM: Transcriptional Regulation by Neuronal Activity: To the Nucleus and Back. Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Boschen JS, Theis D, Ruedenberg K and Windus TL: Accurate ab initio potential energy curves and spectroscopic properties of the four lowest singlet states of C2. In: Thom H. Dunning, Jr: A Festschrift from Theoretical Chemistry Accounts. Wilson AK, Peterson KA and Woon DE (eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp47–58, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular and Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J: How Can We Tell What Color An Extinct Animal Was? IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security: DHS Has Made Progress in Securing the Commercial Aviation System, but Key Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis TL: Quantitative approach to technical performance measurement and technical risk analysis utilizing Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo simulation., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: For Rodriguez, It’s a No-Brainer: Just Play. New York Times: D1, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular and Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationMol. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2049-9450
ISSN (online)2049-9469
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles