How to format your references using the Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D., 2008. A delicate balance. Nature 453, 838.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekkal, W., Zaoui, A., 2013. Nanoscale analysis of the morphology and surface stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs. Sci. Rep. 3, 1587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polyak, V., Hill, C., Asmerom, Y., 2008. Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems. Science 319, 1377–1380.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Arneth, A., Unger, N., Kulmala, M., Andreae, M.O., 2009. Atmospheric science. Clean the air, heat the planet? Science 326, 672–673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, R.A., 2012. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Surface Modification. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Parab, J.S., 2007. Exploring C for Microcontrollers: A Hands on Approach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
von Minckwitz, G., Pirvulescu, C., 2011. Treatment with Trastuzumab Beyond Progression, in: Sibilia, M., Zielinski, C.C., Bartsch, R., Grunt, T.W. (Eds.), Drugs for HER-2-Positive Breast Cancer. Springer, Basel, pp. 61–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Discover New Kind Of Sexual Organ [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Federal-Aid Highways: Improved Guidance Could Enhance States’ Use of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Selection (No. GAO-13-544). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, S.M., 2015. The leadership process: An analysis of follower influence on leader behavior in hospital organizations (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2008. A Chicken on Every Grill For Latin-Style Tastes. New York Times NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2008; Sekkal and Zaoui, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sekkal and Zaoui, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Arneth et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
AbbreviationPalaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.
ISSN (print)0031-0182
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles