How to format your references using the Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cripton, P.A., 2013. Perspective: Protecting the neck. Nature 503, S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morris, S.C., Caron, J.-B., 2007. Halwaxiids and the early evolution of the lophotrochozoans. Science 315, 1255–1258.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCord, T.B., Hansen, G.B., Hibbitts, C.A., 2001. Hydrated salt minerals on Ganymede’s surface: evidence of an ocean below. Science 292, 1523–1525.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Klein-Seetharaman, J., Oikawa, M., Grimshaw, S.B., Wirmer, J., Duchardt, E., Ueda, T., Imoto, T., Smith, L.J., Dobson, C.M., Schwalbe, H., 2002. Long-range interactions within a nonnative protein. Science 295, 1719–1722.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandrea, N., Stănescu, N.-D., 2015. Dynamics of the Rigid Solid with General Constraints by a Multibody Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Oudkerk, M., Reiser, M.F. (Eds.), 2009. Coronary Radiology, 2nd Revised Edition. ed, Medical Radiology, Diagnostic Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Federmann, C., 2012. A Machine-Learning Framework for Hybrid Machine Translation, in: Glimm, B., Krüger, A. (Eds.), KI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 35th Annual German Conference on AI, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 24-27, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. A Forgotten War Technology Could Safely Power Earth For Millions Of Years. Here’s Why We Aren’t Using It [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Advanced Technology Program: Inherent Factors in Selection Process Are Likely to Limit Identification of Similar Research (No. GAO-05-759T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pecue, C.J., 2015. Utilizing Audiovisual Stimuli in the Classroom to Facilitate Pronunciation of French Stop Consonants (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., 2017. Trump, Inspired by France, Wants to Show Off Military Might With a July 4 Parade. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cripton, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cripton, 2013; Morris and Caron, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morris and Caron, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Klein-Seetharaman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
AbbreviationPalaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.
ISSN (print)0031-0182
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles