How to format your references using the Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grant, P.M., 2003. Hydrogen lifts off--with a heavy load. Nature 424, 129–130.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz, M., Coontz, R., 2013. Exoplanets. Alien worlds galore. Introduction. Science 340, 565.
A journal article with 3 authors
D’Hondt, S., Rutherford, S., Spivack, A.J., 2002. Metabolic activity of subsurface life in deep-sea sediments. Science 295, 2067–2070.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouvier, L.C., Costa, M.M., Connelly, J.N., Jensen, N.K., Wielandt, D., Storey, M., Nemchin, A.A., Whitehouse, M.J., Snape, J.F., Bellucci, J.J., Moynier, F., Agranier, A., Gueguen, B., Schönbächler, M., Bizzarro, M., 2018. Evidence for extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization and crust formation on Mars. Nature 558, 586–589.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hobkirk, J.A., Gill, D.S., Jones, S.P., Hemmings, K.W., Bassi, G.S., O’Donnell, A.L., Goodman, J.R., 2010. Hypodontia. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
L’ Ecuyer, P., Owen, A.B. (Eds.), 2009. Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Koegel, L.K., Ashbaugh, K., Koegel, R.L., 2016. Pivotal Response Treatment, in: Lang, R., Hancock, T.B., Singh, N.N. (Eds.), Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Evidence-Based Practices in Behavioral Health. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 85–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Ancient Poop Shows Travelers Also “Traded” Parasites Across The Silk Road [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Much Biomedical Equipment Status Information Available, Yet Concerns Remain (No. T-AIMD-99-197). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford, C.J., 2008. Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating biosensors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2016. Trump-Size Idea for a New President: Build Stuff. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grant, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cruz and Coontz, 2013; Grant, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cruz and Coontz, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouvier et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
AbbreviationPalaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.
ISSN (print)0031-0182
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles