How to format your references using the Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marchant, J., 2015. Consider all the evidence on alternative therapies. Nature 526, 295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schorlemmer, D., Wiemer, S., 2005. Earth science: microseismicity data forecast rupture area. Nature 434, 1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wurmser, A.E., Palmer, T.D., Gage, F.H., 2004. Neuroscience. Cellular interactions in the stem cell niche. Science 304, 1253–1255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bertagnolli, L.N., White, J.A., Simonetti, F.R., Beg, S.A., Lai, J., Tomescu, C., Murray, A.J., Antar, A.A.R., Zhang, H., Margolick, J.B., Hoh, R., Deeks, S.G., Tebas, P., Montaner, L.J., Siliciano, R.F., Laird, G.M., Siliciano, J.D., 2018. The role of CD32 during HIV-1 infection. Nature 561, E17–E19.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halpert, B., 2011. Auditing Cloud Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Banks, C.E., 2016. Screen-Printing Electrochemical Architectures, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Faravelli, L., Fuggini, C., Ubertini, F., 2010. Hybrid Control Procedures in Mitigating Cable Vibrations, in: Irschik, H., Krommer, M., Watanabe, K., Furukawa, T. (Eds.), Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures. Springer, Vienna, pp. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Dengue Virus Is Zika’s Most Powerful Weapon – And Sometimes Its Greatest Weakness [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation: Actions Taken to Address Most Procurement Recommendations (No. GAO-11-794). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldberg, D.S., 2010. Poly (amido amine) dendrimers: Transepithelial transport mechanisms and applications in oral drug delivery (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. Free Tales From Mr. Kafka’s Crypt, (And Thousands of Records, Too). New York Times 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marchant, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Marchant, 2015; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bertagnolli et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
AbbreviationPalaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.
ISSN (print)0031-0182
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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