How to format your references using the Modern Italy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Italy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCann, Kevin. 2007. “Protecting Biostructure.” Nature 446 (7131): 29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes, R. J., and R. Biggs. 2005. “A Biodiversity Intactness Index.” Nature 434 (7029): 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abel, Tom, Greg L. Bryan, and Michael L. Norman. 2002. “The Formation of the First Star in the Universe.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 93–98.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tsukatani, Yusuke, Haruki Yamamoto, Jiro Harada, Taichi Yoshitomi, Jiro Nomata, Masahiro Kasahara, Tadashi Mizoguchi, Yuichi Fujita, and Hitoshi Tamiaki. 2013. “An Unexpectedly Branched Biosynthetic Pathway for Bacteriochlorophyll b Capable of Absorbing Near-Infrared Light.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dos Santos, Euzeli Cipriano, Jr, and Edison Roberto Cabral da Silva. 2014. ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
González-Aguilar, Hernán, and Edgardo Ugalde, eds. 2015. Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Models and Applications. Vol. 12. Nonlinear Systems and Complexity. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jobbágy, Esteban G., Germán Baldi, and Marcelo D. Nosetto. 2012. “Tree Plantation in South America and The Water Cycle: Impacts and Emergent Opportunities.” In Forests in Development: A Vital Balance, edited by Tomás Schlichter and Leopoldo Montes, 53–63. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Italy.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “RIP E.T. – Alien Life On Most Exoplanets Dies Young.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Army Reserve Officer Education. NSIAD-93-197R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laird, Toby. 2008. “Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Adjudicated versus Non -Adjudicated Youths Arrested for Substance Use.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, Linda. 2014. “Loving Trees, Even the Messy Ones.” New York Times, April 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCann 2007).
This sentence cites two references (McCann 2007; Scholes and Biggs 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scholes and Biggs 2005)
  • Three authors: (Abel, Bryan, and Norman 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tsukatani et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Italy
AbbreviationMod. Italy
ISSN (print)1353-2944
ISSN (online)1469-9877
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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