How to format your references using the Modern Italy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Italy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ross, Frances M. 2015. “Opportunities and Challenges in Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6267): aaa9886.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heath, R. J., and C. O. Rock. 2000. “A Triclosan-Resistant Bacterial Enzyme.” Nature 406 (6792): 145–146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Di Matteo, Tiziana, Volker Springel, and Lars Hernquist. 2005. “Energy Input from Quasars Regulates the Growth and Activity of Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies.” Nature 433 (7026): 604–607.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Christoph, J., M. Chebbok, C. Richter, J. Schröder-Schetelig, P. Bittihn, S. Stein, I. Uzelac, et al. 2018. “Electromechanical Vortex Filaments during Cardiac Fibrillation.” Nature 555 (7698): 667–672.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ollivier, Jean-Pierre, Jean-Michel Torrenti, and Myriam Carcassès. 2012. Physical Properties of Concrete and Concrete Constituents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Smith, Daron. 2013. Research in Clinical Practice. Edited by Dan Wood. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Menezes, Maria Viviane, Silvio do Lago Pereira, and Leliane Nunes de Barros. 2010. “System Design Modification with Actions.” In Advances in Artificial Intelligence – SBIA 2010: 20th Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, São Bernardo Do Campo, Brazil, October 23-28, 2010. Proceedings, edited by Antônio Carlos da Rocha Costa, Rosa Maria Vicari, and Flavio Tonidandel, 31–40. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Italy.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “Diagonal Ear Crease Linked To Increased Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Education Programs: Information on Major Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education Programs. HEHS-97-210R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, Gongliang. 2010. “Roles of Serotonin 2A Receptor in a Serotonin Syndrome.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla, Susan. 2016. “Decades After Suit, Wall St. Bias Persists for Women.” New York Times, May 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ross 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ross 2015; Heath and Rock 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heath and Rock 2000)
  • Three authors: (Di Matteo, Springel, and Hernquist 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Christoph et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Italy
AbbreviationMod. Italy
ISSN (print)1353-2944
ISSN (online)1469-9877
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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