How to format your references using the Modern Italy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Italy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fenchel, Tom. 2002. “Microbial Behavior in a Heterogeneous World.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5570): 1068–1071.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elmquist, Joel K., and Jeffrey S. Flier. 2004. “Neuroscience. The Fat-Brain Axis Enters a New Dimension.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5667): 63–64.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foran, Elizabeth, Steve Weiner, and Maoz Fine. 2013. “Biogenic Fish-Gut Calcium Carbonate Is a Stable Amorphous Phase in the Gilt-Head Seabream, Sparus Aurata.” Scientific Reports 3: 1700.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fernandes-Alnemri, Teresa, Je-Wook Yu, Pinaki Datta, Jianghong Wu, and Emad S. Alnemri. 2009. “AIM2 Activates the Inflammasome and Cell Death in Response to Cytoplasmic DNA.” Nature 458 (7237): 509–513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klepinger, Linda L. 2006. Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh, Ryszard Kowalczyk, Cezary Orłowski, and Artur Ziółkowski, eds. 2016. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XXV. Vol. 9990. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuevas, Erik, Daniel Zaldívar, and Marco Perez-Cisneros. 2016. “Ellipse Detection on Images Inspired by the Collective Animal Behavior.” In Applications of Evolutionary Computation in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, edited by Daniel Zaldívar and Marco Perez-Cisneros, 53–77. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Italy.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Ancient 6,000-Year-Old Parisian Skeletons May Have Had Their Skulls Smashed In By ‘Furious Ritualized Warriors.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Telecommunications: National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. RCED-89-193. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duerr, Phillip S. 2015. “Investigation of Marine Waterjet Inlets during Turning Maneuvers.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2003. “A Block of Fabled Theaters May Get an Extended Run.” New York Times, March 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fenchel 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fenchel 2002; Elmquist and Flier 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elmquist and Flier 2004)
  • Three authors: (Foran, Weiner, and Fine 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fernandes-Alnemri et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Italy
AbbreviationMod. Italy
ISSN (print)1353-2944
ISSN (online)1469-9877
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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