How to format your references using the Modern Italy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Italy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shih, William M. 2015. “Materials Science. Exploiting Weak Interactions in DNA Self-Assembly.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6229): 1417–1418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meier, Mark F., and Mark B. Dyurgerov. 2002. “Sea Level Changes. How Alaska Affects the World.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5580): 350–351.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hill, Michael S., Peter B. Hitchcock, and Ruti Pongtavornpinyo. 2006. “A Linear Homocatenated Compound Containing Six Indium Centers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5769): 1904–1907.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kresse, Georg, Michael Schmid, Evelyn Napetschnig, Maxim Shishkin, Lukas Köhler, and Peter Varga. 2005. “Structure of the Ultrathin Aluminum Oxide Film on NiAl(110).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5727): 1440–1442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Desai, Jatin. 2013. Innovation Engine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gorodetsky, Vladimir, Jiming Liu, and Victor A. Skormin, eds. 2005. Autonomous Intelligent Systems: Agents and Data Mining: International Workshop, AIS-ADM 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 6-8, 2005. Proceedings. Vol. 3505. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujiwara, Hiroshi, Kazuo Iwama, and Yoshiyuki Sekiguchi. 2008. “Average-Case Competitive Analyses for One-Way Trading.” In Computing and Combinatorics: 14th Annual International Conference, COCOON 2008 Dalian, China, June 27-29, 2008 Proceedings, edited by Xiaodong Hu and Jie Wang, 41–51. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Italy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Certain Commonly Used Drugs May Increase Risk Of Dementia.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. [Department of the Interior: Migratory Bird Hunting Final Rule]. OGC-96-48. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morales, Carmen J. 2010. “Can Early-Life Activity Behavior Predict Adult Compliance with an Exercise Program in Later Life?” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2015. “Seven Museums, Each Offering a Deadly Sin.” New York Times, May 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shih 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Shih 2015; Meier and Dyurgerov 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meier and Dyurgerov 2002)
  • Three authors: (Hill, Hitchcock, and Pongtavornpinyo 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kresse et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Italy
AbbreviationMod. Italy
ISSN (print)1353-2944
ISSN (online)1469-9877
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles