How to format your references using the Modern Italy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Italy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Souza Pereira, R. 2000. “Yet the Path Is Strewn with Needless Obstacles.” Nature 407 (6806): 834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne, Shane, and Andrew P. Ingersoll. 2003. “A Sublimation Model for Martian South Polar Ice Features.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5609): 1051–1053.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roberts, J. Murray, Andrew J. Wheeler, and André Freiwald. 2006. “Reefs of the Deep: The Biology and Geology of Cold-Water Coral Ecosystems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5773): 543–547.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rowsell, Jesse L. C., Elinor C. Spencer, Juergen Eckert, Judith A. K. Howard, and Omar M. Yaghi. 2005. “Gas Adsorption Sites in a Large-Pore Metal-Organic Framework.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5739): 1350–1354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakir, Benjamin. 2013. Extremes in Random Fields: A Theory and Its Applications. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Benson, Michael, John Fixsen, Malcolm Macnicol, and Klausdieter Parsch, eds. 2009. Children’s Orthopaedics and Fractures. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Au, Whitlow W. L., and Mardi C. Hastings. 2008. “Signal Recording and Data Acquisition.” In Principles of Marine Bioacoustics, edited by Mardi C. Hastings, 121–175. New York, NY: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Italy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Why Can’t You Tickle Yourself?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. NASA Procurement: Contract Management Oversight. NSIAD-97-114R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nadeau, Elizabeth M. 2017. “Baby Boomer Generation’s Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, George. 2011. “Cancer’s Secrets Come Into Sharper Focus.” New York Times, August 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Souza Pereira 2000).
This sentence cites two references (de Souza Pereira 2000; Byrne and Ingersoll 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byrne and Ingersoll 2003)
  • Three authors: (Roberts, Wheeler, and Freiwald 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rowsell et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Italy
AbbreviationMod. Italy
ISSN (print)1353-2944
ISSN (online)1469-9877
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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