How to format your references using the Modern Italy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Italy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd, Robert. 2006. “Evolution. The Puzzle of Human Sociality.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5805): 1555–1556.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roman, Joe, and Stephen R. Palumbi. 2003. “Whales before Whaling in the North Atlantic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5632): 508–510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Corcoran, Aaron J., Jesse R. Barber, and William E. Conner. 2009. “Tiger Moth Jams Bat Sonar.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5938): 325–327.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Marlovits, Thomas C., Tomoko Kubori, Anand Sukhan, Dennis R. Thomas, Jorge E. Galán, and Vinzenz M. Unger. 2004. “Structural Insights into the Assembly of the Type III Secretion Needle Complex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5698): 1040–1042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu, Hiroshi. 2017. Shimizu’s Dermatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sellmyer, David, and Ralph Skomski, eds. 2006. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Guzman, Marcelo I. 2011. “Abiotic Photosynthesis: From Prebiotic Chemistry to Metabolism.” In Origins of Life: The Primal Self-Organization, edited by Richard Egel, Dirk-Henner Lankenau, and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian, 85–105. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Italy.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Orangutans Come Down From The Trees.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Actions Underway To Reduce Delinquencies in the Health Professions and Nursing Student Loan Programs. AFMD-83-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lucas, Melissa Ann. 2017. “Bridging the Gap Between Schools and Families Through Teacher Home Visits.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Kevin. 2002. “Making My Own Music.” New York Times, October 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyd 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd 2006; Roman and Palumbi 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roman and Palumbi 2003)
  • Three authors: (Corcoran, Barber, and Conner 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Marlovits et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Italy
AbbreviationMod. Italy
ISSN (print)1353-2944
ISSN (online)1469-9877
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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