How to format your references using the Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pääbo, S.: The mosaic that is our genome. Nature. 421, 409–412 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mendelson, T.C., Shaw, K.L.: Sexual behaviour: rapid speciation in an arthropod. Nature. 433, 375–376 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, L., Garbe, D.S., Bashaw, G.J.: A frazzled/DCC-dependent transcriptional switch regulates midline axon guidance. Science. 324, 944–947 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Slon, V., Mafessoni, F., Vernot, B., de Filippo, C., Grote, S., Viola, B., Hajdinjak, M., Peyrégne, S., Nagel, S., Brown, S., Douka, K., Higham, T., Kozlikin, M.B., Shunkov, M.V., Derevianko, A.P., Kelso, J., Meyer, M., Prüfer, K., Pääbo, S.: The genome of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. Nature. 561, 113–116 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avdeef, A.: Absorption and Drug Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Schramm, J. ed: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 41. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu, Y., Lan, H., Ness, D.A., Xing, K., Schneider, K., Lee, S.-H., Ge, J.: Alternative Energy Development in Rural Chinese Communities. In: Lan, H., Ness, D.A., Xing, K., Schneider, K., Lee, S.-H., and Ge, J. (eds.) Transforming Rural Communities in China and Beyond: Community Entrepreneurship and Enterprises, Infrastructure Development and Investment Modes. pp. 93–116. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Modified Antibiotic Found To Be Effective Against Drug Resistant Bacteria,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Final Certification of TAP Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batistick, S.A.: Reclaiming One’s Gold: Imagining the Inner Child Through the Art of Therapeutic Fairy Tale Writing, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A.L., Santora, M., Palmer, E.: Bronx Baby Thrown Out Window Dies; Mother Is Charged With Murder, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContinuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics
AbbreviationContin. Mech. Thermodyn.
ISSN (print)0935-1175
ISSN (online)1432-0959
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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