How to format your references using the Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M.: Animal models: inside the minds of mice and men. Nature. 475, 123–128 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Neufeld, P., Scheck, B.: Making forensic science more scientific. Nature. 464, 351 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Webster, A.J., Payne, R.J.H., Pagel, M.: Molecular phylogenies link rates of evolution and speciation. Science. 301, 478 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y., Chen, M., Zhou, F., Ma, E.: High tensile ductility in a nanostructured metal. Nature. 419, 912–915 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chang, C.M.: Service Systems Management and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Alcaraz, M.J., Gualillo, O., Sánchez-Pernaute, O. eds: Studies on Arthritis and Joint Disorders. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Sköld, H.N., Obst, M., Sköld, M., Åkesson, B.: Stem Cells in Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. In: Rinkevich, B. and Matranga, V. (eds.) Stem Cells in Marine Organisms. pp. 105–137. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

Blog post
Hale, T.: The World’s Finest 3D-Printed Foot-Bridge Graces A Park In Madrid,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Participation in the National School Lunch Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1984)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Donihoo, K.: Best Practices and Strategies Used by Church Leaders to Mitigate and Prevent Burnout Among Church Volunteers, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss, B.: In Baltimore, This Song Is Their Song, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContinuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics
AbbreviationContin. Mech. Thermodyn.
ISSN (print)0935-1175
ISSN (online)1432-0959
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles