How to format your references using the Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond, B.: Neuroscience. Information coding. Science. 294, 2493–2494 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M.M., Johanson, Z.: Separate evolutionary origins of teeth from evidence in fossil jawed vertebrates. Science. 299, 1235–1236 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, G.Z., Fray, D.J., Farthing, T.W.: Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride. Nature. 407, 361–364 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, X., Harris, R.E., Bayston, L.J., Ashe, H.L.: Type IV collagens regulate BMP signalling in Drosophila. Nature. 455, 72–77 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halloran, M., Thies, C.: The Social Media Handbook for Financial Advisors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Hinkson, G.: Foundation Fireworks CS4. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Kruse, T., Sun, E.W.: News Trader, Liquidity and Transaction Cost. In: Dufrénot, G., Jawadi, F., and Louhichi, W. (eds.) Market Microstructure and Nonlinear Dynamics: Keeping Financial Crisis in Context. pp. 95–127. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: These Skyscrapers Will Clean Pollution From The Surrounding Water And Air,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Substance Abuse Surveys. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al azze, Q.: Field-Oriented Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on DSP Controller, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: Remodeling the U.S. Fed Cup Team, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleContinuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics
AbbreviationContin. Mech. Thermodyn.
ISSN (print)0935-1175
ISSN (online)1432-0959
ScopeMechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles