How to format your references using the Modern Electronic Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Electronic Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Helbing, Globally networked risks and how to respond, Nature. 497 (2013) 51–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.K. Rilling, L.J. Young, The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development, Science. 345 (2014) 771–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Walkden, J. Parker, S. Kelley, A late Triassic impact ejecta layer in southwestern Britain, Science. 298 (2002) 2185–2188.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Marescaux, J. Leroy, M. Gagner, F. Rubino, D. Mutter, M. Vix, S.E. Butner, M.K. Smith, Transatlantic robot-assisted telesurgery, Nature. 413 (2001) 379–380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.H. Eden, Codecharts, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
U. Flegel, E. Markatos, W. Robertson, eds., Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 9th International Conference, DIMVA 2012, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, July 26-27, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Herrera, S. Ventura, R. Bello, C. Cornelis, A. Zafra, D. Sánchez-Tarragó, S. Vluymans, Bag-Based Classification Methods, in: S. Ventura, R. Bello, C. Cornelis, A. Zafra, D. Sánchez-Tarragó, S. Vluymans (Eds.), Multiple Instance Learning: Foundations and Algorithms, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 99–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Electronic Materials.

Blog post
J. Fang, How Do You Test The Multiverse? With Bubbles, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: System for Reimbursing Universities’ Indirect Costs Should Be Reevaluated, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Stuart, The Relationship Between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Risen, S. Fink, Pentagon Unit Considered Establishing a Secret Overseas Prison, New York Times. (2017) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Electronic Materials
ISSN (print)2452-1779

Other styles