How to format your references using the Bioelectromagnetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioelectromagnetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Menaker M. 2003. Circadian rhythms. Circadian photoreception. Science 299:213–214.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn S, Lee SJ. 2014. Nanoparticle role on the repeatability of stimuli-responsive nanocomposites. Sci. Rep. 4:6624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gubbins D, Jones AL, Finlay CC. 2006. Fall in Earth’s magnetic field is erratic. Science 312:900–902.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gustafsson FS, Whiteside MD, Jiranek V, Durall DM. 2014. Development and use of a quantum dot probe to track multiple yeast strains in mixed culture. Sci. Rep. 4:6971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt G. 2010. Zuckersüße Chemie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kim T-H, Lee Y-H, Fang W-C eds. 2012. Future Generation Information Technology: 4th International Conference, FGIT 2012, Gangneug, Korea, December 16-19, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Vol. 7709. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Mccall S. 2005. Quality of Life. In: Michalos, AC, editor. Citation Classics from Social Indicators Research: The Most Cited Articles Edited and Introduced by Alex C. Michalos. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Social Indicators Research Series p. 117–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioelectromagnetics.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016. Touchscreens For Dogs, Wearables For Chickens: Welcome To The World Of Animal Technology. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Federal Direction Needed for Educating Handicapped Children in State Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valley MT. 2010. Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials. Doctoral dissertation; New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J. 2017. Protests Disrupt Commerce in St. Louis, and Regional Leaders Take Notice. New York Times, October 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBioelectromagnetics
ISSN (print)0197-8462
ISSN (online)1521-186X
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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