How to format your references using the Bioelectromagnetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioelectromagnetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramer A. 2015. Circadian rhythms. When the circadian clock becomes blind. Science 347:476–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thoroughman KA, Shadmehr R. 2000. Learning of action through adaptive combination of motor primitives. Nature 407:742–747.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansell DA, Kadko D, Bates NR. 2004. Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science 304:858–861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang X, Zhuang J, Peng Q, Li Y. 2005. A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis. Nature 437:121–124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reeve WD. 2006. DC Power System Design for Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Derdikman D, Knierim JJ eds. 2014. Space,Time and Memory in the Hippocampal Formation. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rogers Y. 2008. Using External Visualizations to Extend and Integrate Learning in Mobile and Classroom Settings. In: Gilbert, JK, Reiner, M, Nakhleh, M, editors. Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 89–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioelectromagnetics.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Doctors Hope To Convert Fat Into Ears. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Strategic Bombers: Adding Conventional Capabilities Will Be Complex, Time-Consuming, and Costly. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pena AM. 2012. Perceptions of Spanish/English bilingual school psychologists regarding competency in assessment and future training needs. Doctoral dissertation; College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly Beatty J, Special to The New. 1985. EARLY DATA ARRIVE FROM PROBE ON VENUS. New York Times, June 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBioelectromagnetics
ISSN (print)0197-8462
ISSN (online)1521-186X
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles