How to format your references using the Bioelectromagnetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioelectromagnetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rauchway E. 2009. Recession Watch: Work for the greater good. Nature 457:959–960.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schlapbach L, Züttel A. 2001. Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications. Nature 414:353–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reik W, Dean W, Walter J. 2001. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development. Science 293:1089–1093.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li J, Liu M, Zong J, Tan P, Wang J, Wang X, Ye Y, Liu S, Liu X. 2014. Genetic variations in IL1A and IL1RN are associated with the risk of preeclampsia in Chinese Han population. Sci. Rep. 4:5250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dehn MJ. 2010. Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cuthbertson R. 2011. Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Practical Ideas for Moving Towards Best Practice. Ed. Balkan Cetinkaya, Graham Ewer, Thorsten Klaas-Wissing, Wojciech Piotrowicz, Christoph Tyssen. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chalikias GK, Tziakas DN. 2016. Biomarkers of the Extracellular Matrix and of Collagen Fragments. In: Patel, VB, Preedy, VR, editors. Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 87–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioelectromagnetics.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2016. Health Check: How Much Salt Is OK To Eat? IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Department of Homeland Security: Continued Actions Needed to Strengthen Oversight and Coordination of Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ichiyama J. 2014. Early goal-directed therapy in adult septic patients. Doctoral dissertation; Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. 2017. Bernadette Peters To Join ‘Hello, Dolly!’ New York Times, September 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBioelectromagnetics
ISSN (print)0197-8462
ISSN (online)1521-186X
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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