How to format your references using the Bioelectromagnetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioelectromagnetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bear G. 2000. Deep ice and DNA languages. Nature 403:141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wculek SK, Malanchi I. 2015. Neutrophils support lung colonization of metastasis-initiating breast cancer cells. Nature 528:413–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng N, Tsunenari T, Yau K-W. 2009. Intrinsic light response of retinal horizontal cells of teleosts. Nature 460:899–903.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gunther LK, Furuta K, Bao J, Urbanowski MK, Kojima H, White HD, Sakamoto T. 2014. Coupling of two non-processive myosin 5c dimers enables processive stepping along actin filaments. Sci. Rep. 4:4907.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox C. 2014. An Introduction to LTE. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Disalvo EA ed. 2015. Membrane Hydration: The Role of Water in the Structure and Function of Biological Membranes. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Vol. 71. Subcellular Biochemistry.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavone P. 2009. Image Reconstruction. In: Fioranelli, M, Dowe, DA, editors. CT Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease. Milano: Springer. p. 37–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioelectromagnetics.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016. Why China And Europe Should Form The World’s Most Powerful ‘Climate Bloc.’ IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. [Review of DOD Programs Funded With R&D Appropriations]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burgner J. 2010. Bullying prevention: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation; Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. 2016. At 8 Feet Tall, He Sat Down and Started Getting Noticed. New York Times, September 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBioelectromagnetics
ISSN (print)0197-8462
ISSN (online)1521-186X
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles