How to format your references using the Bioelectromagnetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioelectromagnetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miralda-Escudé J. 2001. Cosmology. Probing matter at the lowest densities. Science 293:1055–1056.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayes R, Weiss H. 2006. Epidemiology. Understanding HIV epidemic trends in Africa. Science 311:620–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conroy C, van Dokkum PG, Choi J. 2015. Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations. Nature 527:488–491.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jarvis ED, Ribeiro S, da Silva ML, Ventura D, Vielliard J, Mello CV. 2000. Behaviourally driven gene expression reveals song nuclei in hummingbird brain. Nature 406:628–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Kelly M, Ratitch B. 2014. Clinical Trials with Missing Data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Andrica D. 2009. Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems. Ed. Titu Andreescu. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Flannery JA, Smith KM. 2011. Green Dot E. 27th Street Charter High Schools. In: Smith, KM, editor. Eco-Urban Design. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 42–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioelectromagnetics.

Blog post
Taub B. 2017. These Super Slow-Mo Videos Show A Viper Strike In All Its Glory. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramakrishnan T. 2017. Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry. Doctoral dissertation; Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. 2016. Leading a Paper’s Shift as Journalism Evolves. New York Times, October 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBioelectromagnetics
ISSN (print)0197-8462
ISSN (online)1521-186X
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles