How to format your references using the Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA (2000) GEOPHYSICS: Core Takes a Page From the Sea Floor. Science 290:1274b–5b
A journal article with 2 authors
Carlip S, Vaidya S (2003) Cosmology: Do black holes constrain varying constants? Nature 421:498
A journal article with 3 authors
Mason AC, Oshinsky ML, Hoy RR (2001) Hyperacute directional hearing in a microscale auditory system. Nature 410:686–690
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Soma S, Shimegi S, Suematsu N, Sato H (2013) Cholinergic modulation of response gain in the rat primary visual cortex. Sci Rep 3:1138

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossner W, Graubner C-A (2012) Spannbetonbauwerke. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Olausson H, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F (2016) Affective Touch and the Neurophysiology of CT Afferents. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang M, Yin H (2016) Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-Specific Patches for Preventing Component Hijacking Attacks. In: Yin H (ed) Android Application Security: A Semantics and Context-Aware Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Meet Octobot, The First Ever Fully Soft-Bodied Robot. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Mass Transit: Issues Related to Providing Dedicated Funding for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Konggidinata MI (2017) Application and Modifications of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC) for BTEX Removal: Characterization, Adsorption Mechanisms, and Kinetic Studies. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2016) Gifted Frenemies, Egging Each Other on to Greatness. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationMaxillofac. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (online)2288-8586

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