How to format your references using the Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oullier O (2013) Behavioural insights are vital to policy-making. Nature 501:463
A journal article with 2 authors
Sillanpää MA, Hakonen PJ (2014) Optomechanics: Hardware for a quantum network. Nature 507:45, 47
A journal article with 3 authors
Haince J-F, Rouleau M, Poirier GG (2006) Transcription. Gene expression needs a break to unwind before carrying on. Science 312:1752–1753
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fàbrega C, Farrow MA, Mukhopadhyay B, et al (2001) An aminoacyl tRNA synthetase whose sequence fits into neither of the two known classes. Nature 411:110–114

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marvin S (2010) Dictionary of Scientific Principles. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Fischlin M (2009) Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2009: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 20-24, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ohsawa Y (2006) Scenario Maps on Situational Switch Model, Applied to Blood-Test Data for Hepatitis C Patients. In: Ohsawa Y, Tsumoto S (eds) Chance Discoveries in Real World Decision Making: Data-based Interaction of Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Working Hoverboard Sets New World Record. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Review of Several Aspects of the Internal Revenue Service’s Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fulton E (2010) Differential effects of nicotine on prospective memory, sustained attention, and working memory. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) A Collection’s First E-Sale. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationMaxillofac. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (online)2288-8586

Other styles