How to format your references using the Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stein RS (2004) Geoscience. Tidal triggering caught in the act. Science 305:1248–1249
A journal article with 2 authors
Stumpf MPH, Porter MA (2012) Mathematics. Critical truths about power laws. Science 335:665–666
A journal article with 3 authors
Vielle-Calzada JP, Baskar R, Grossniklaus U (2000) Delayed activation of the paternal genome during seed development. Nature 404:91–94
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Koehl A, Hu H, Maeda S, et al (2018) Structure of the µ-opioid receptor-Gi protein complex. Nature 558:547–552

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palmquist SR (2015) Comprehensive Commentary on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wang W, Li Y, Duan Z, et al (2007) Integration and Innovation Orient to E-Society Volume 1: Seventh IFIP International Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E2007), October 10–12, Wuhan, China. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Sanford JF, Potkonjak M, Slijepcevic S (2012) Beacon Positioning and Operations. In: Potkonjak M, Slijepcevic S (eds) Localization in Wireless Networks: Foundations and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp 97–128

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2015) Russia And Europe Collaborate On A Joint Mission To The Moon. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) VA Information Technology: Progress Made, but Continued Management Attention Is Key to Achieving Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fails JA (2009) Mobile collaboration for young children: Reading and creating stories. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) N.F.L.-Approved Therapist For Fans Draws Scrutiny. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationMaxillofac. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (online)2288-8586

Other styles