How to format your references using the Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ye J (2011) Cell biology. Protease sets site-1 on lysosomes. Science 333:50–51
A journal article with 2 authors
Bengtson S, Budd G (2004) Comment on “Small bilaterian fossils from 40 to 55 million years before the Cambrian.” Science 306:1291; author reply 1291
A journal article with 3 authors
Meier P, Finch A, Evan G (2000) Apoptosis in development. Nature 407:796–801
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Michailov GV, Sereda MW, Brinkmann BG, et al (2004) Axonal neuregulin-1 regulates myelin sheath thickness. Science 304:700–703

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Federer WT, King F (2007) Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mathew J, Shafik RA, Pradhan DK (2014) Energy-Efficient Fault-Tolerant Systems. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Alvim MS, Andrés ME, Palamidessi C (2010) Entropy and Attack Models in Information Flow. In: Calude CS, Sassone V (eds) Theoretical Computer Science: 6th IFIP TC 1/WG 2.2 International Conference, TCS 2010, Held as Part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 53–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Scientists Just Replicated The Infamous Milgram Experiment. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Activities of Washington Data Processing Center Statistical Research Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mosbacker HL (2008) Control of Electrical Transport Mechanisms at Metal-Zinc Oxide Interfaces by Subsurface Defect Engineering with Remote Plasma Treatment. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2005) Fun if by Land and Fun if by Sea. New York Times 512

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationMaxillofac. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (online)2288-8586

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