How to format your references using the Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joffre M (2007) Comment on “Coherent control of retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin.” Science 317:453; author reply 453
A journal article with 2 authors
Rockenbach B, Milinski M (2006) The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment. Nature 444:718–723
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks CL 3rd, Onuchic JN, Wales DJ (2001) Statistical thermodynamics. Taking a walk on a landscape. Science 293:612–613
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Naruse M, Tani T, Yasuda H, et al (2014) Randomness in highly reflective silver nanoparticles and their localized optical fields. Sci Rep 4:6077

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Bosse JG (2002) Signaling in Telecommunication Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA
An edited book
Hess PO (2016) Pseudo-Complex General Relativity. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kolaczyk ED, Csárdi G (2014) Mathematical Models for Network Graphs. In: Csárdi G (ed) Statistical Analysis of Network Data with R. Springer, New York, NY, pp 69–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Astronomers Snap Infrared View Of The Distant Universe 13 Billion Light-Years Away. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) International Cooperation in Energy Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whidby MA (2012) Citation handling: Processing citation texts in scientific documents. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) Perot Under Fire: Sifting Facts and Motives. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationMaxillofac. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (online)2288-8586

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