How to format your references using the Biological Invasions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Invasions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levine DK (2009) Economics. Eyes on the prize? Science 323:1296–1297
A journal article with 2 authors
Pitman NCA, Jørgensen PM (2002) Estimating the size of the world’s threatened flora. Science 298:989
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV (2011) Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome. Nature 476:351–354
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lapolla JS, Sheldon FH, Remsen JV, et al (2005) Academy of Natural Sciences: Job Cuts. Science 307:1560b

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gowler DB (2013) James Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Jain S, Munos R, Stephan F, Zeugmann T (eds) (2013) Algorithmic Learning Theory: 24th International Conference, ALT 2013, Singapore, October 6-9, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Vogler R (2013) Transnational Inquiries and the Protection of Human Rights in the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights. In: Ruggeri S (ed) Transnational Inquiries and the Protection of Fundamental Rights in Criminal Proceedings: A Study in Memory of Vittorio Grevi and Giovanni Tranchina. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Invasions.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Drugs Could Reverse Multiple Sclerosis Nerve Damage. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Student Loans: Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhuang S (2008) Enhancing Implicit Finite Element Sheet Forming Simulation. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Packer G (2013) A Historian in Camelot. New York Times BR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levine 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Pitman and Jørgensen 2002; Levine 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pitman and Jørgensen 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lapolla et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Invasions
AbbreviationBiol. Invasions
ISSN (print)1387-3547
ISSN (online)1573-1464
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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