How to format your references using the Biological Invasions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Invasions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houston SD (2006) Anthropology. An example of Preclassic Mayan writing? Science 311:1249–1250
A journal article with 2 authors
Garnero EJ, McNamara AK (2008) Structure and dynamics of Earth’s lower mantle. Science 320:626–628
A journal article with 3 authors
Chin G, Marathe T, Roberts L (2011) Population. Doom or vroom? Introduction. Science 333:538–539
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Borgatti SP, Mehra A, Brass DJ, Labianca G (2009) Network analysis in the social sciences. Science 323:892–895

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli D (2012) Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Witelski T (2015) Methods of Mathematical Modelling: Continuous Systems and Differential Equations, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
De Sanctis L, Franz S (2009) Self-averaging Identities for Random Spin Systems. In: Monvel AB de, Bovier A (eds) Spin Glasses: Statics and Dynamics: Summer School, Paris 2007. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 123–142

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Invasions.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Is Commercial Fishing Driving The Evolution Of Fish? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA Budget: Potential Shortfalls in Funding NASA’s 5-Year Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warner KS (2014) The narrative structure of children’s books used in language therapy: An analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2015) In Chernobyl, Life Finds a Way. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Houston 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Houston 2006; Garnero and McNamara 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Garnero and McNamara 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Borgatti et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Invasions
AbbreviationBiol. Invasions
ISSN (print)1387-3547
ISSN (online)1573-1464
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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