How to format your references using the Biological Invasions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Invasions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ooi T (2011) Chemistry. Heat and light switch a chiral catalyst and its products. Science 331:1395–1396
A journal article with 2 authors
Giessen H, Lippitz M (2010) Physics. Directing light emission from quantum dots. Science 329:910–911
A journal article with 3 authors
Holman KT, Pivovar AM, Ward MD (2001) Engineering crystal symmetry and polar order in molecular host frameworks. Science 294:1907–1911
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Joyce DA, Lunt DH, Bills R, et al (2005) An extant cichlid fish radiation emerged in an extinct Pleistocene lake. Nature 435:90–95

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Griffin PM, Nembhard HB, DeFlitch CJ, et al (2015) Healthcare Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pérez Martín J, Di Pietro A (eds) (2012) Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity in Fungi. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Krebbers R (2013) Aliasing Restrictions of C11 Formalized in Coq. In: Gonthier G, Norrish M (eds) Certified Programs and Proofs: Third International Conference, CPP 2013, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, December 11-13, 2013, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 50–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Invasions.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Discovery Of ‘Oldest’ Qur’an Fragments Could Resolve Enigmatic History Of Holy Text. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Aviation Security: Progress Made in Systematic Planning to Guide Key Investment Decisions, but More Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton EW (2012) Clinical management and outcomes of patients in the Duke Cryptococcosis Clinical Cohort, 1996 - 2009. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Weapons Found Near Vnukovo Airport. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ooi 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Giessen and Lippitz 2010; Ooi 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giessen and Lippitz 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Joyce et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Invasions
AbbreviationBiol. Invasions
ISSN (print)1387-3547
ISSN (online)1573-1464
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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