How to format your references using the Biological Invasions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Invasions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varmus H (2006) The new era in cancer research. Science 312:1162–1165
A journal article with 2 authors
Best RB, Hummer G (2009) Biochemistry. Unfolding the secrets of calmodulin. Science 323:593–594
A journal article with 3 authors
He X, Gao L, Ma N (2013) One-step instant synthesis of protein-conjugated quantum dots at room temperature. Sci Rep 3:2825
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Berl V, Huc I, Khoury RG, et al (2000) Interconversion of single and double helices formed from synthetic molecular strands. Nature 407:720–723

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghiani G, Laporte G, Musmanno R (2005) Introduction to Logistics Systems Planning and Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Domaratzki M, Okhotin A, Salomaa K, Yu S (eds) (2005) Implementation and Application of Automata: 9th International Conference, CIAA 2004, Kingston, Canada, July 22-24, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Gautschi H, Gautschi D (2016) How Did We Get to Here? The Role of the State in Fostering Context. In: Gautschi D (ed) Technological Innovation and Economic Transformation: A Method for Contextual Analysis. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 77–119

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Invasions.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Misinformed Spiders Lead Colonies To Disaster. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Mass Transit: FTA’s Progress in Developing and Implementing a New Starts Evaluation Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman MJ (2010) Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES (2017) The Color Red. New York Times RE12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Varmus 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Varmus 2006; Best and Hummer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Best and Hummer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Berl et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Invasions
AbbreviationBiol. Invasions
ISSN (print)1387-3547
ISSN (online)1573-1464
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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