How to format your references using the Biological Invasions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Invasions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JM (2005) Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep. Nature 437:1264–1271
A journal article with 2 authors
Turchyn AV, Schrag DP (2004) Oxygen isotope constraints on the sulfur cycle over the past 10 million years. Science 303:2004–2007
A journal article with 3 authors
Marshall CB, Fletcher GL, Davies PL (2004) Hyperactive antifreeze protein in a fish. Nature 429:153
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Splawski I, Timothy KW, Tateyama M, et al (2002) Variant of SCN5A sodium channel implicated in risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Science 297:1333–1336

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton G (2010) Wastewater Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kumar V, Srivastava J, Lazarevic A (eds) (2005) Managing Cyber Threats: Issues, Approaches, and Challenges. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Rzoska SJ, Drozd-Rzoska A (2005) Comments on Nonlinear Dielectric Effect Measurements in Liquids. In: Rzoska SJ, Zhelezny VP (eds) Nonlinear Dielectric Phenomena in Complex Liquids. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 55–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Invasions.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Why so many domesticated mammals have floppy ears. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Communications Commission: Direct Broadcast Satellite Public Interest Obligations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saperstein AM (2009) Susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nagourney A, Shear MD (2017) Call From California: President Trump, Where Are You? New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Turchyn and Schrag 2004; Siegel 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turchyn and Schrag 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Splawski et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Invasions
AbbreviationBiol. Invasions
ISSN (print)1387-3547
ISSN (online)1573-1464
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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